Chemistry 1 cp chapters 22 23 hydrocarbon compounds
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Chemistry-1 CP Chapters 22 & 23 Hydrocarbon Compounds. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: The study of compounds containing CARBON. There are more than a 10 million organic compounds!. Allotropes. Lonsdaleite. One of two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.

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Chemistry 1 cp chapters 22 23 hydrocarbon compounds

Chemistry-1 CPChapters 22 & 23 Hydrocarbon Compounds


Organic chemistry the study of compounds containing carbon
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:The study of compounds containing CARBON

There are more than a 10 million organic compounds!


Allotropes
Allotropes

Lonsdaleite

One of two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state


Hydrocarbons
HYDROCARBONS

HYDROCARBON PREFIXES

The simplest organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen

Carbon has 4 valence electrons, and therefore always forms 4 covalent bonds!


Illustrating hydrocarbons
ILLUSTRATING HYDROCARBONS

C4H10

Molecular Formula

Complete Structural Formula

C-C-C-C

Carbon Skeleton

CH3(CH2)3CH3

Line-Angle Formula

Condensed Structural Formulas


Alkanes
Alkanes

  • A hydrocarbon in which there are only single bonds

  • In an alkane all the carbon-carbon bonds are single covalent bonds

    • All other bonds are carbon-hydrogen bonds

  • The carbon atoms in an alkane can be arranged in a straight chain or in a chain that has branches.

  • Alkanes are called saturated compounds because they contain only single covalent bonds


Straight chain alkanes
Straight Chain Alkanes

  • Contain any number of carbon atoms, one after the other, in a chain

    • Homologous Series: A constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound in the series to the next

      • In an alkane a CH2 group is the increment of change



Branched chain alkanes
Branched Chain Alkanes

  • An alkane with one or more alkyl groups

    • Substituent: An atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule

    • Parent Alkane: The longest continuous carbon chain of a branched–chain hydrocarbon

    • Alkyl Group: A hydrocarbon substituent



Properties of alkanes
PROPERTIES OF ALKANES

  • Molecules of hydrocarbons are nonpolar molecules

    • Attraction between nonpolar molecules are weak van der Waals forces

    • Alkanes of lower molar mass tend to be gases or liquids that boil at low temperatures

  • Will form a solution with nonpolar compounds because “Like dissolves Like”

  • Will not form solutions with polar compounds



To name alkenes alkynes
To Name Alkenes/Alkynes triple carbon-carbon bonds


Draw the structural formulas for
Draw the structural formulas for: triple carbon-carbon bonds

Propyne Propane Propene


Isomers
ISOMERS triple carbon-carbon bonds

Compounds that have the same molecular

formula but different molecular structures


Structural isomers
Structural Isomers triple carbon-carbon bonds

Compounds that have the same molecular

formulas but the atoms are joined in a different way

  • Structural isomers differ in physical properties such as melting/boiling points

  • Have different chemical reactivities


Properties
PROPERTIES triple carbon-carbon bonds

The more highly branched the hydrocarbon, the lower the boiling point hydrocarbon


Stereoisomers
STEREOISOMERS triple carbon-carbon bonds

Molecules in which the atoms are joined in the

same order, but the positions of the atoms in

space are different.

1) Geometric Isomers: Atoms are joined in the same order but differ in orientation around a double bond.

trans: Similar groups are on opposite sides of the double bond

cis: Similar groups are on the same side of the double bond


Which is cis and which is trans
Which is triple carbon-carbon bondscis and which is trans?


Stereoisomers1
STEREOISOMERS triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Optical Isomers: Differ in the way that four different groups are arranged around a central carbon atom.

    • Asymmetric Carbon: A carbon with 4 different atoms or groups attached


Functional groups
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Organic compounds can be classified according to their functional group.

    • Functional Group: A specific arrangment of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions

      • Organic compounds can be classified by their functional groups!


Halocarbons
Halocarbons triple carbon-carbon bonds

A class of organic compounds containing

covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine or

iodine.

Naming: The halogen groups are named as substituents


Halocarbons1
Halocarbons triple carbon-carbon bonds

Properties:

  • Weak van der Waals interactions called

    dispersion forces

    • Forces increase with halogen substitution

      • More highly halogenated organic compounds have higher boiling points

  • Very few are found in nature


Halocarbons2
Halocarbons triple carbon-carbon bonds

1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its Amendments, which have both high ozone depleting potentials (ODPs)


Alcohols
Alcohols triple carbon-carbon bonds

An organic compound with an –OH group

  • Hydroxyl Group: The –OH functional group

“In many ways, prohibition was the catalyst for the first (and arguably biggest) large-scale Do-It-Yourself science movement in the nation's history”. Robert T. Gonzalez, BBC


Naming alcohols
Naming Alcohols triple carbon-carbon bonds

1) Drop the –e ending of the parent alkane name and add the ending –ol

2) Parent alkane is the longest continuous chain that includes the carbon attached to the hydroxyl group

3) If the hydroxyl group can occur at more than one position, its position is designated with the lowest possible number.

4) Alcohols containing 2, 3, or 4 –OH substituents are named diols, triols, and tetrols


Properties of alcohols
Properties of Alcohols triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Capable of intermolecular hydrogen bonding

    • Higher boiling points than alkanes & halocarbons containing comparable numbers

  • Alcohols up to 4 carbon atoms are soluble in water

    • Solubility with 4 carbons or more is much lower

    • Carbon chain is nonpolar (not attracted to water)…more carbons = more nonpolar parts to the molecule

      • Hydroxyl part is polar…that’s why small alcohols are soluble in water


Uses of alcohols
Uses of Alcohols triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Common Name: Isopropyl Alcohol

  • IUPAC Name:

  • Rubbing alcohol

  • Base for perfumes, creams & lotions

  • Common Name: Ethylene glycol

  • IUPAC Name:

  • Main ingredient in antifreeze

    • Soluble in water

    • Freezes at -17.4C

  • Common Name: Ethanol

  • IUPAC Name:

  • Alcoholic Beverages

    • A depressant

  • In industry: denatured alcohol


Aldehydes
Aldehydes triple carbon-carbon bonds

An organic compound in which the carbon of

the carbonyl group is always joined to at least

one hydrogen

  • Carbonyl Group: a CO group


Ketones
Ketones triple carbon-carbon bonds

An organic compound in which the carbon of

the carbonyl group is joined to two other

carbons


Naming aldehydes ketones
Naming Aldehydes & Ketones triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Identify the longest hydrocarbon chain containing the functional group

    • 2. For aldehydes, replace the –e of the hydrocarbon with –al

    • 3. For ketones, replace the –e of the hydrocarbon with –one

    • 4. If the functional group can occur at more than one place, designate its position with the lowest possible number.


Properties of aldehydes ketones
Properties of Aldehydes & Ketones triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Form weak hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen and the hydrogen atoms of water

    • Low molar mass compounds are soluble in water

    • Above 5 or 6 carbon atoms, solubility is low

  • Soluble in nonpolar solvents

  • Boiling points are lower than alcohols

  • Boiling points are higher than alkanes

    • Because of polar ends they can have polar-polar interactions

  • Typically liquids or solids at room temperature


Uses of aldehydes ketones
Uses of Aldehydes & Ketones triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • High molar mass aldehydes & ketones have fragrant or penetrating odors

    • Aromatic aldehydes often used as flavoring agents

      • Almond odor (benzaldehyde) & Cinnamon odor (cinnamonaldehyde)

  • Formaldehyde (methanal)

  • Acetone (propanone)

    • Solvent for plastics, nail polish removers, etc.


Esters
Esters triple carbon-carbon bonds

Contain a carbonyl group and an ether link

(C-O-C) to the carbonyl group


Properties of esters
Properties of Esters triple carbon-carbon bonds

  • Pleasant, fruity odors

Uses of Esters

  • Give blueberries, pineapples, apples, pears, bananas and many other fruits their characteristic odors

  • Give many perfumes their fragrances


Polymers
Polymers triple carbon-carbon bonds


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