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MOBY – A Mobile Peer-to-Peer Service and Data Network *. Tzevetan Horozov 1 , Ananth Grama 1 , Sean Landis 2 & Venu Vasudevan 2 1 Dept . of Computer Sc i ences , Purdue University, W.Lafayette, IN 47907 {horozov, ayg}

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Moby a mobile peer to peer service and data network l.jpg

MOBY – A Mobile Peer-to-Peer Service and Data Network*

Tzevetan Horozov1, Ananth Grama1,

Sean Landis2 & Venu Vasudevan2

1 Dept. of Computer Sciences, Purdue University, W.Lafayette, IN 47907

{horozov, ayg}

2 Motorola Labs. IL02-2240, 1301, E. Algonquin Road, Schaumburg, IL 60196

{Sean_Landis-CSL044, Venu_Vasudevan-CVV012}

Presented by Mehmet Koyutürk

Dept. of Computer Sciences, Purdue University

* This work is supported in part by National Science Foundation grants EIA-9806741, ACI-9875899, ACI-9872101, and Motorola Labs. Computing equipment used for this work was supported by National Science Foundation, Intel Corp. and Motorola Labs.

Motivation l.jpg

  • Peer-to-Peer networks are gaining popularity

    • Decentralized management

    • Distributed resources

    • Anonymity

    • Examples: Napster, Gnutella, Freenet, Gnunet

  • Goal: Building a similar network on the wireless internet capable of sharing both data and services

Applications l.jpg

  • Daily

    • Alternate routes in traffic

    • Weather information, regional maps

  • Scientific domain

    • Access to services on large computing platforms

    • Access to services on data repositories

  • Can be done without relying on a central server

  • Thin clients as both data sources and data sinks

    • PDA : Appointment books/calendar

    • Sensors are sources of sensed data

Stationary vs wireless l.jpg
Stationary vs. Wireless

  • High mobility

    • devices come and go

    • device/service mapping is highly dynamic

    • the user adds value to the network

      • location specific information

  • Hardware/software limitations

    • device/service interaction is limited

  • Low network bandwidth

    • device network I/O must be minimized

Design considerations l.jpg
Design Considerations

  • End-user transparency

    • Providing the end user a seamless view of the network

  • Ubiquity

    • Facilitating a wide range of wired and wireless components into the network

  • Ease of application integration

  • Performance

Underlying technologies l.jpg
Underlying Technologies

  • Jini

    • A service broker architecture

    • JAVA and RMI technology

    • Clients/Services have no a-priori knowledge of each other

    • Ideal for wireless networks

      • Ad-hoc nature

      • Must interact with devices that have different capabilities

    • Most mobile devices don’t have sufficient resources to support Jini

Underlying technologies7 l.jpg

Surrogate Architecture Specification

Architecture to overcome hardware/software limitations of the device

Allows device to run a surrogate on a wired host

Surrogate host: Java framework launched on the host-capable machine

Surrogate: Java program available on an HTTP server

Underlying Technologies

Challenges for moby l.jpg
Challenges for MOBY

  • J2ME does not support class loading for security and performance reasons

    • Serious limitation if we want to instantiate different protocol adapters in order to communicate with various services

  • Secure and reliable Jini services discovery over the internet

  • Performance

    • Service locations and client mapping have critical impact on resource utilization and end-user performance

Related research l.jpg
Related Research

  • P2P data networks: wide-spread deployment

    • Gnutella, Freenet, Limewire

    • Focus on information sharing, but provide some underlying technologies

  • Enabling infrastructure for sharing services in distributed object-oriented frameworks


    • Foundational technologies for remote-method calls

  • Rover software toolkit

    • Develop proxies for services to make mobile characteristics transparent to applications

  • The Ninja project

    • Targets robust, scalable distributed internet services for highly heterogeneous devices

  • JXTA

    • Interoperability in data sharing, platform independence in service sharing and ubiquity across devices

Past research vs moby l.jpg
Past Research vs. MOBY

  • Majority of frameworks assume:

    • Static service sites

    • Deterministic mapping of clients to services invariant on system state

  • MOBY’s objective

    • Integrating transparent service migration and dynamic client mapping for seamless scalable performance

Moby system architecture l.jpg
MOBY System Architecture

  • MOBY pieces together a number of Jini domains consisting of a LAN that allows multicast with following components:

    • Wireless access point

    • Surrogate host

    • Jini Lookup Service (JLUS)

    • Jini Services Host (JSI)

    • A central gateway called Mnode

    • Jini services

    • Wireless devices

Mnode l.jpg

  • Exports methods to allow devices to search MOBY

  • Provides secure broadcast and forwarding of queries

    • Central server

    • Tunneled communication

  • Responds to queries

  • Stores a snapshot of the Jini domain

  • Launches/terminates System Jini Services

Device connection l.jpg
Device Connection

  • Device contacts MOBY and launches its surrogate

  • The surrogate gets a reference from SH to JLUS

  • The surrogate opens two TCP ports

    • To keep surrogate alive

    • Sending/receiving data

  • The device connects and brings up UI allowing the user to search the network

Terminal application l.jpg
Terminal Application

  • CommandSender interface

    • Based on javax.microedition.lcdui

    • CommandSender object on surrogate

    • Invoking methods on CommandSendermodifies terminal application on device by creating objects on device

      • Objects on device referenced with their hash codes

    • Interpretation of user response

      • Commands are created as objects in J2ME

Surrogate architecture l.jpg
Surrogate Architecture

  • Surrogate has three main functions

    • Class loading: downloads protocol adapter, and instantiates it with a reference to CommandSender

    • Query initiation:first contacts JLUS, if can’t find service invokes appropriate RMI methods of Mnode to search over entire MOBY network

    • Query response: uses appropriate RMI methods to register peer service

Services in moby l.jpg
Services in MOBY

  • General Jini Services

  • System Jini Services

  • Peer Services

General jini services l.jpg
General Jini Services

  • Jini services provided by service provider companies

  • Statically registered with a JLUS in a given Jini domain

  • Manually launched by system administrators

System jini services l.jpg
System Jini Services

  • Why System Jini Services?

    • Interests for service change in long-run.

    • Interests change in the short-run.

      • Stock quote, traffic during day

      • Restaurant / club finder during night

    • Improved client-service interaction

    • Easy to locate

  • Which services could be SJS?

    • Computation intensive: Photo-editor

    • Small database: Yellow pages for a city

    • Coherence of interest: Mapquest

    • Real-time: Stock quotes

Peer services l.jpg
Peer Services

  • Services provided by peers

  • Downloaded in a jar file and launched on the surrogate

  • Example: Talk daemon

    • Surrogate downloads, user can connect and chats with other devices

Client service interaction l.jpg
Client/Service Interaction

  • Service proxy

    • Downloaded from JLUS

    • Usually in the form of RMI stubs that have reference to service methods

    • Provides only communication

  • Protocol adapter provides interaction between user and service

    • Service provider supplies downloadable device specific protocol adapters

Searching for services in moby l.jpg
Searching for Services in MOBY

  • General Jini Services

    • Surrogate searches for Jini service in local domain

    • If not found, a secure MOBY search is performed

    • Search returns reference to appropriate JLUS

  • System Jini Service

    • If service not found, it must be launched

  • Peer Services

    • Centralized server keeps track of URL storage

    • Search performed by contacting a central authority

    • Centralized server is not a bottleneck since instantiation happens only when a service is restarted at an alternate location or replicated

Searching for services in moby22 l.jpg
Searching for Services in MOBY

  • Each service has an XML descriptor

    • Jini services

      • General service description

      • URL for protocol adapters

    • Peer services

      • Information valuable to other peers that need to contact the service

  • Query must be propagated to as many Mnodes as possible

    • Broadcast with adjustable TTL

    • Search can be repeated with a higher TTL

    • UDP is used for communication between Mnodes

Resource management in moby l.jpg
Resource Management in MOBY

  • Deployment model: Phone companies and ISPs to provide access to wireless subscribers

  • Problems

    • Service distribution among Jini domains

    • Hardware resource allocation

  • General Jini Services

    • Each service provider company assigned an Mnode

  • Peer Services

    • Administrators need to provide verification and storage

  • System Jini Services

    • Require special handling

    • Should be launched at locations where most requested

    • Client latency optimized by moving services closer, replicating services and terminating them

Managing system jini services l.jpg
Managing System Jini Services

  • Two methods for launching a service

    • Deterministic launch

      • Current Mnode tries to launch service locally

      • If cannot launch, picks the closest node that has sufficient hardware resources to launch

      • Guarantees instantiation

    • Probabilistic launch

      • There is a predetermined maximum distance at which a service could be launched

      • Failure signalled if no Mnode with sufficient resources in this neighborhood could be found

Security in moby l.jpg
Security in MOBY

  • Each Mnode has a tuple (Port, IP, ID descr, Ti, D, PubKey) referred as Node ID

  • Central server signs Node ID

  • Mnodes secure-tunnel their communication

    • RSA used for session key exchange

    • Boroadcast messages are secure-tunneled between Mnodes with the obtained session key

  • Secure queries are broadcast to secure Mnodes

  • The result is associated with the replying Node ID

Performance terminal application l.jpg
Performance: Terminal Application

  • Benchmark application: basic objects like forms, text boxes, lists

  • Both devices run J2ME with 64K application memory

Performance surrogate host l.jpg
Performance : Surrogate Host

  • Performance depends on

    • Hardware characteristics of the host machine

    • Complexity of surrogate

  • Observations on an SH on Pentium III, 600 MHz, 256 RAM

    • 100 surrogates arriving at the same time take 10 sec to register over TCP

    • Can support 50-100 concurrent surrogates at acceptable latency

Performance mnode l.jpg

Results on single domain are promising


Average phone cell hosts 50 users at a time

2 queries per user p/m, total 100 queries p/m

Mnode can process 12000 queries p/m

120 hosts can maintain lossless broadcasting

Performance : Mnode

Conclusions future work l.jpg
Conclusions & Future Work

  • MOBY: A fully functional wireless P2P network

    • Infrastructure leverages on various existing technologies to achieve design goals of end-user transparency, ubiquity, ease of application integration and performance

    • Difficult to quantify without a large-scale deployment

  • Future work

    • Standardizing a service interface

    • Quantification of performance