General licensing class
Download
1 / 68

General Licensing Class - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

General Licensing Class. Skywave Excitement. Lake Area Radio Klub Spring 2010. Amateur Radio General Class Element 3 Course Presentation. ELEMENT 3 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings) 1 - Your Passing CSCE 2 - Your New General Bands 3 - FCC Rules 4 - Be a VE 5 - Voice Operations 6 - CW Lives

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' General Licensing Class' - nhi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
General licensing class
General Licensing Class

Skywave Excitement

Lake Area Radio Klub

Spring 2010


Amateur radio general class element 3 course presentation
Amateur Radio General ClassElement 3 Course Presentation

  • ELEMENT 3 SUB-ELEMENTS(Groupings)

    • 1 - Your Passing CSCE

    • 2 - Your New General Bands

    • 3 - FCC Rules

    • 4 - Be a VE

    • 5 - Voice Operations

    • 6 - CW Lives

    • 7 - Digital Operating

    • 8 - In An Emergency

    • 9 - Skywave Excitement


Amateur radio general class element 3 course presentation1
Amateur Radio General ClassElement 3 Course Presentation

  • ELEMENT 3 SUB-ELEMENTS(Groupings)

    • 10 - Your HF Transmitter

    • 11 - Your Receiver

    • 12 - Oscillators & Components

    • 13 - Electrical Principles

    • 14 - Circuits

    • 15 - Good Grounds

    • 16 - HF Antennas

    • 17 - Coax Cable

    • 18 - RF & Electrical Safety


Skywave excitement
Skywave Excitement

  • The F2 region is mainly responsible for the longest distance radio wave propagation because it is the highest ionospheric region. (G3C03)


Skywave excitement layers of the atmosphere
Skywave ExcitementLayers of the Atmosphere


Skywave excitement atmospheric layers
Skywave ExcitementAtmospheric Layers

Terms we’ve heard before from space shuttle launches.

Now apply them to Ham Radio

Ionosphere

31 – 400 miles

Stratosphere

6 – 31 miles

Troposphere

0 – 6 miles


Skywave excitement regions in the ionosphere
Skywave ExcitementRegions in the Ionosphere

At night....

During the day....

  • The “D” Region is closest to Earth

  • The “D” Region absorbs MF/HF radio signals

  • The “F2” Region is most responsible for long distance communication

  • The “D” & “E” Regions disappear

  • The “F1” & “F2” Regions combine into one with reduced ionization


Skywave excitement1
Skywave Excitement

  • 2,500 miles is the approximate maximum distance along the Earth's surface that is normally covered in one hop using the F2 region. (G3B09)

  • Where the Sun is overhead, ionospheric layers reach their maximum height. (G3C02)

The ionosphere is what makes long-distance radio communications possible on the shortwave bands.

The ionosphere is made up of three layers of charged particles, labeled D, E, and F.


Skywave excitement2
Skywave Excitement

  • The highest takeoff angle that will return a radio wave to the Earth under specific ionospheric conditions is called the critical angle. (G3C04)

One factor that affects how well the ionosphere will reflect a signal is the angle at which the signal impinges upon it.

If the angle is too high, it will pass right through the ionosphere and not be reflected back to earth.


Skywave excitement3
Skywave Excitement

  • MUF stand for the Maximum Usable Frequency for communications between two points. (G3B08)

  • When they are sent into the ionosphere, radio waves with frequencies below the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) and above the Lowest Usable Frequency (LUF) are bent back to the Earth. (G3B05)

  • A reliable way to determine if the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) is high enough to support skip propagation between your station and a distant location on frequencies between 14 and 30 MHz is to listen for signals from an international beacon. (G3B04)

There are websites that provide skywave DX conditions.


Skywave excitement4
Skywave Excitement

When selecting a frequency for lowest attenuation when transmitting on HF, select a frequency just below the MUF. (G3B03)

The following factors affect the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) (G3B12)

Path distance and location

Time of day and season

Solar radiation and ionospheric disturbances

1,200 miles is the approximate maximum distance along the Earth's surface that is normally covered in one hop using the E region. (G3B10)

A good indicator of the possibility of sky-wave propagation on the 6 meter band is that there is short skip sky-wave propagation on the 10 meter band. (G3B02)

All of these choices are correct.


Skywave excitement5
Skywave Excitement

The ionospheric layer closest to the surface of the Earth is the D layer. (G3C01)

The D layer is the ionospheric layer that is the most absorbent of long skip signals during daylight hours on frequencies below 10 MHz. (G3C12)

Altitudes in Miles of Ionospheric Layers

Day

F Layer

F Layer

E Layer

E Layer

D Layer

D Layer


Skywave excitement6
Skywave Excitement

  • Long distance communication on the 40, 60, 80 and 160 meter bands is more difficult during the day because the D layer absorbs signals at these frequencies during daylight hours. (G3C05)

  • LUF stands for the Lowest Usable Frequency for communications between two points. (G3B07)

  • When they are sent into the ionosphere, radio waves with frequencies below the Lowest Usable Frequency (LUF) are completely absorbed by the ionosphere. (G3B06)

  • No HF radio frequency will support ordinary skywave communications over the path when the Lowest Usable Frequency (LUF) exceeds the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF). (G3B11)


Skywave excitement7
Skywave Excitement

  • One interesting propagation phenomenon is scatter propagation. Scatter propagation allows a signal to be detected at a distance too far for ground wave propagation but too near for normal sky-wave propagation. (G3C09)

Scatter


Skywave excitement8
Skywave Excitement

  • HF scatter signals in the skip zone are usually weak because only a small part of the signal energy is scattered into the skip zone. (G3C08)

  • A characteristic of HF scatter signals is that they have a wavering sound. (G3C06)

  • HF scatter signals often sound distorted because energy is scattered into the skip zone through several different radio wave paths. (G3C07)

  • An indication that signals heard on the HF bands are being received via scatter propagation is that the signal is heard on a frequency above the Maximum Usable Frequency. (G3C10)


Skywave excitement9
Skywave Excitement

  • To figure where to point a directional antenna you’d use an azimuthal projection map. An azimuthal projection map is a world map projection centered on a particular location. (G2D04)

  • While signals most often take the shortest path from point to point, sometimes the best path for radio propagation is in the opposite direction, also called the “long path.” A well-defined echo might be heard if a sky-wave signal arrives at your receiver by both short path and long path propagation. (G3B01)

Centered on Dallas, Texas


Skywave excitement10
Skywave Excitement

  • Most communications take place on the “short path,” that is the most direct path between two stations. At times, however, propagation may favor the long path. A directional antenna is pointed 180 degrees from its short-path heading when making a “long-path” contact with another station. (G2D06)

  • The phenomenon that most affects amateur radio communications on the HF bands is the sunspot cycle. The typical sunspot cycle is approximately 11 years long. (G3A11)


Skywave excitement11
Skywave Excitement

  • The sunspot number is a measure of solar activity based on counting sunspots and sunspot groups. (G3A01)

  • The sunspot cycle is a long-term phenomenon. There are other phenomena that affect radio wave propagation in the short term. For example, the Sun’s rotation on its axis causes HF propagation conditions to vary periodically in a 28-day cycle. (G3A10)

Solar flares and sunspots affect radiowave propagation


Skywave excitement12
Skywave Excitement

  • The effect that high sunspot numbers have on radio communications is that long-distance communication in the upper HF and lower VHF range is enhanced.(G3A09)

  • 21 MHz and higher are the amateur radio HF frequencies that are least reliable for long distance communications during periods of low solar activity. (G3A04)

  • The solar-flux index is a measure of solar radiation at 10.7 cm. (G3A05)

10.7 cm wavelength =2.80 GHz


Skywave excitement13
Skywave Excitement

  • There are two indices that give an indication of the stability of the Earth’s magnetic field. The K-index indicates the short term stability of the Earth’s magnetic field.(G3A12)

  • The A-index indicates the long term stability of the Earth’s geomagnetic field.(G3A13)


Skywave excitement14
Skywave Excitement

  • 8 minutes is approximately how long it takes for the increased ultraviolet and X-ray radiation from solar flares to affect radio-wave propagation on the Earth. (G3A03)

  • Geomagnetic activity, such as a geomagnetic storm, can also affect radio propagation. A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance in the Earth's magnetosphere. (G3A06)


Skywave excitement15
Skywave Excitement

  • The effect a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance has on the daytime ionospheric propagation of HF radio waves is that it disrupts signals on lower frequencies more than those on higher frequencies. (G3A02)

A Sudden Ionic Disturbance (SID) is a phenomenon that can have a drastic effect on propagation.

During an SID, the sun emits a great deal of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation.


Skywave excitement16
Skywave Excitement

  • One of the effects a geomagnetic storm can have on radio-wave propagation is degraded high-latitude HF propagation. (G3A08)

  • A possible benefit to radio communications resulting from periods of high geomagnetic activity is that the aurora that can reflect VHF signals. (G3A16)

Geomagnetic disturbances caused by the Sun result in the Northern Lights.


Skywave excitement17
Skywave Excitement

  • It takes 20 to 40 hours for charged particles from Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) to affect radio-wave propagation on the Earth. (G3A15)

A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a massive burst of solar wind and magnetic fields rising above the solar corona or being released into space.

Coronal Mass Ejections take 20 – 40 hours to reach the earth where ultraviolet and X-Ray radiation from solar flares take 8 minutes.


Skywave excitement18
Skywave Excitement

  • HF communications are disturbed by the charged particles that reach the Earth from solar coronal holes.(G3A14)

  • At any point in the solar cycle, the 20 meter band usually supports worldwide propagation during daylight hours.(G3A07)

  • Near Vertical Incidence Sky-wave (NVIS) propagation is short distance HF propagation using high elevation angles.(G3C13)

The antenna sends the signal at an angle of close to 90 degrees, and if conditions are right, the ionosphere reflects that signal back to the earth at a very short distance from the transmitting station.


Element 3 general class question pool
Element 3 General Class Question Pool

Skywave Excitement

Valid July 1, 2011

Through

June 30, 2015


G3c03 why is the f2 region mainly responsible for the longest distance radio wave propagation
G3C03Why is the F2 region mainly responsible for the longest distance radio wave propagation?

Because it is the densest ionospheric layer

Because it does not absorb radio waves as much as other ionospheric regions

Because it is the highest ionospheric region

All of these choices are correct


G3B09 What is the approximate maximum distance along the Earth's surface that is normally covered in one hop using the F2 region?

180 miles

1,200 miles

2,500 miles

12,000 miles


G3c02 where on the earth do ionospheric layers reach their maximum height
G3C02 Where on the Earth do ionospheric layers reach their maximum height?

Where the Sun is overhead.

Where the Sun is on the opposite side of the Earth.

Where the Sun is rising.

Where the Sun has just set.


G3c04 what does the term critical angle mean as used in radio wave propagation
G3C04 What does the term “critical angle” mean as used in radio wave propagation?

The long path azimuth of a distant station

The short path azimuth of a distant station

The lowest takeoff angle that will return a radio wave to the Earth under specific ionospheric conditions

The highest takeoff angle that will return a radio wave to the Earth under specific ionospheric conditions


G3b08 what does muf stand for
G3B08 What does MUF stand for?

The Minimum Usable Frequency for communications between two points

The Maximum Usable Frequency for communications between two points

The Minimum Usable Frequency during a 24 hour period

The Maximum Usable Frequency during a 24 hour period


G3B05 What usually happens to radio waves with frequencies below the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) when they are sent into the ionosphere?

They are bent back to the Earth

They pass through the ionosphere

They are amplified by interaction with the ionosphere

They are bent and trapped in the ionosphere to circle the Earth


G3B04What is a reliable way to determine if the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) is high enough to support skip propagation between your station and a distant location on frequencies between 14 and 30 MHz?

Listen for signals from international beacon

Send a series of dots on the band and listen for echoes from your signal

Check the strength of TV signals from Western Europe

Check the strength of signals in the MF AM broadcast band


G3B03 Which of the following applies when selecting a frequency for lowest attenuation when transmitting on HF?

Select a frequency just below the MUF

Select a frequency just above the LUF

Select a frequency just below the critical frequency

Select a frequency just above the critical frequency


G3b12 what factors affect the maximum usable frequency muf
G3B12 What factors affect the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF)?

Path distance and location

Time of day and season

Solar radiation and ionospheric disturbance

All of these choices are correct


G3B10 What is the approximate maximum distance along the Earth's surface that is normally covered in one hop using the E region?

180 miles

1,200 miles

2,500 miles

12,000 miles


G3B02 Which of the following is a good indicator of the possibility of skywave propagation on the 6 meter band?

Short skip skywave propagation on the 10 meter band

Long skip skywave propagation on the 10 meter band

Severe attenuation of signals on the 10 meter band

Long delayed echoes on the 10 meter band


G3c01 which of the following ionospheric layers is closest to the surface of the earth
G3C01Which of the following ionospheric layers is closest to the surface of the Earth?

The D layer

The E layer

The F1 layer

The F2 layer


G3C12 Which ionospheric layer is the most absorbent of long skip signals during daylight hours on frequencies below 10 MHz?

The F2 layer

The F1 layer

The E layer

The D layer


G3C05 Why is long distance communication on the 40, 60, 80 and 160 meter bands more difficult during the day?

The F layer absorbs these frequencies during daylight hours

The F layer is unstable during daylight hours

The D layer absorbs these frequencies during daylight hours

The E layer is unstable during daylight hours


G3b07 what does luf stand for
G3B07 What does LUF stand for?

The Lowest Usable Frequency for communications between two points

The Longest Universal Function for communications between two points

The Lowest Usable Frequency during a 24 hour period

The Longest Universal Function during a 24 hour period


G3b06 what usually happens to radio waves with frequencies below the lowest usable frequency luf
G3B06 What usually happens to radio waves with frequencies below the Lowest Usable Frequency (LUF)?

They are bent back to the Earth

They pass through the ionosphere

They are completely absorbed by the ionosphere

They are bent and trapped in the ionosphere to circle the Earth


G3B11 What happens to HF propagation when the Lowest Usable Frequency (LUF) exceeds the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF)?

No HF radio frequency will support communications over the path.

HF communications over the path are enhanced.

Double hop propagation along the path is more common

Propagation over the path on all HF frequencies is enhanced


G3C09 What type of radio wave propagation allows a signal to be detected at a distance too far for ground wave propagation but too near for normal sky wave propagation?

Faraday rotation.

Scatter

Sporadic-E skip

Short-path skip


G3c08 why are hf scatter signals in the skip zone usually weak
G3C08 Why are HF scatter signals in the skip zone usually weak?

Only a small part of the signal energy is scattered into the skip zone.

Signals are scattered from the magnetosphere which is not a good reflector.

Propagation is through ground waves which absorb most of the signal energy.

Propagations is through ducts in F region which absorb most of the energy.


G3c06 what is a characteristic of hf scatter signals
G3C06 What is a characteristic of HF scatter signals?

They have high intelligibility

They have a wavering sound

They have very large swings in signal strength

All of these choices are correct


G3c07 what makes hf scatter signals often sound distorted
G3C07 What makes HF scatter signals often sound distorted?

The ionospheric layer involved is unstable

Ground waves are absorbing much of the signal

The E-region is not present

Energy is scattered into the skip zone through several radio wave paths


G3C10 Which of the following might be an indication that signals heard on the HF bands are being received via scatter propagation?

The communication is during a sunspot maximum

The communication is during a sudden ionospheric disturbance

The signal is heard on a frequency below the maximum usable frequency

The signal is heard on a frequency above the maximum usable frequency


G2d04 what is an azimuthal projection map
G2D04 What is an azimuthal projection map?

A world map that shows accurate land masses.

A world map projection centered on a particular location

A world map that shows the angle at which an amateur satellite crosses the equator

A world map that shows the number of degrees longitude that an amateur satellite appears to move westward at the equator with each orbit


G3B01 How might a sky-wave signal sound if it arrives at your receiver by both short path and long path propagation?

Periodic fading approximately every 10 seconds

Signal strength increased by 3 dB

The signal will be cancelled causing severe attenuation

A well-defined echo can be heard


G2d06 how is a directional antenna pointed when making a long path contact with another station
G2D06 How is a directional antenna pointed when making a “long-path” contact with another station?

Toward the rising sun

Along the Gray Line

180 degrees from its short-path heading

Toward the North


G3a11 how long is the typical sunspot cycle
G3A11 How long is the typical sunspot cycle?

8 minutes

40 hours

28 days

11 years


G3a01 what is the sunspot number
G3A01What is the sunspot number?

A measure of solar activity based on counting sunspots and sunspot groups

A 3 digit identifier which is used to track individual sunspots

A measure of the radio flux from the sun measured at 10.7 cm

A measure of the sunspot count based on radio flux measurements


G3a10 what causes hf propagation conditions to vary periodically in a 28 day cycle
G3A10 What causes HF propagation conditions to vary periodically in a 28-day cycle?

  • Long term oscillations in the upper atmosphere.

  • Cyclic variation in the Earth’s radiation belts.

  • The Sun’s rotation on its axis.

  • The position of the Moon in its orbit.


G3a09 what effect do high sunspot numbers have on radio communications
G3A09 What effect do high sunspot numbers have on radio communications?

High-frequency radio signals become weak and distorted

Frequencies above 300 MHz become usable for long-distance communication

Long-distance communication in the upper HF and lower VHF range is enhanced

Microwave communications become unstable


G3A04 Which of the following amateur radio HF frequencies are least reliable for long distance communications during periods of low solar activity?

  • 3.5 MHz and lower.

  • 7 MHz.

  • 10 MHz.

  • 21 MHz and higher.


G3a05 what is the solar flux index
G3A05 What is the solar-flux index?

A measure of the highest frequency that is useful for ionospheric propagation between two points on the Earth.

A count of sunspots which is adjusted for solar emissions.

Another name for the American sunspot number.

A measure of solar activity at 10.7 cm.


G3a12 what is the k index
G3A12 What is the K-index?

The relative position of sunspots on the surface of the sun.

The short term stability of the Earth’s magnetic field.

The stability of the Sun's magnetic field.

The solar radio flux at Boulder, Colorado.


G3a13 what is the a index
G3A13What is the A-index?

The relative position of sunspots on the surface of the sun.

The amount of polarization of the Sun's electric field.

The long term stability of the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

The solar radio flux at Boulder, Colorado.


G3A03 Approximately how long does it take the increased ultraviolet and X-ray radiation from solar flares to affect radio-wave propagation on the Earth?

28 days.

1 to 2 hours.

8 minutes

20 to 40 hours.


G3a06 what is a geomagnetic storm
G3A06 What is a geomagnetic storm?

A sudden drop in the solar-flux index.

A thunderstorm which affects radio propagation.

Ripples in the ionosphere

A temporary disturbance in the Earth's magnetosphere.


G3A02 What effect does a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance have on the daytime ionospheric propagation of HF radio waves?

It enhances propagation on all HF frequencies.

It disrupts signals on lower frequencies more than those on higher frequencies.

It disrupts communications via satellite more than direct communications.

None, because only areas on the night side of the Earth are affected.


G3a08 which of the following effects can a geomagnetic storm have on radio wave propagation
G3A08 Which of the following effects can a geomagnetic storm have on radio-wave propagation?

Improved high-latitude HF propagation

Degraded high-latitude HF propagation

Improved ground-wave propagation

Improved chances of UHF ducting


G3A16 What is a possible benefit to radio communications resulting from periods of high geomagnetic activity?

Aurora that can reflect VHF signals

Higher signal strength for HF signals passing through the polar regions

Improved HF long path propagation

Reduced long delayed echoes


G3A15 How long does it take charged particles from coronal mass ejections to affect radio-wave propagation on the Earth?

28 days

14 days

4 to 8 minutes

20 to 40 hours


G3A14 How are radio communications usually affected by the charged particles that reach the Earth from solar coronal holes?

HF communications are improved

HF communications are disturbed

VHF/UHF ducting is improved

VHF/UHF ducting is disturbed


G3A07 At what point in the solar cycle does the 20 meter band usually support worldwide propagation during daylight hours?

At the summer solstice

Only at the maximum point of the solar cycle

Only at the minimum point of the solar cycle

At any point in the solar cycle


G3c13 what is near vertical incidence sky wave nvis propagation
G3C13 What is Near Vertical Incidence Sky- wave (NVIS) propagation?

Propagation near the MUF

Short distance HF propagation using high elevation angles

Long path HF propagation at sunrise and sunset

Double hop propagation near the LUF


ad