Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents
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Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents

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Excel Class Objectives. After completing this class you will be able to:Describe the four steps for making Excel spreadsheets Section 508 compliant:Labeling Column and Row headersProperly creating chartsAdding text descriptions to images and charts in the form of captionsMaking comments and hid
Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents

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1. Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents ASPA Web Communications and New Media Division

2. Excel Class Objectives After completing this class you will be able to: Describe the four steps for making Excel spreadsheets Section 508 compliant: Labeling Column and Row headers Properly creating charts Adding text descriptions to images and charts in the form of captions Making comments and hidden notes accessible Test each Excel document for accessibility in the context of Internet-based content. There are a few ways to put spreadsheets on the Web. A. You can put Excel spreadsheets directly on the web in their native format. As such, the end user will need to have Excel installed on the computer in order to get an accessible version, *plus* the Excel spreadsheet would have to be created with logical header rows and/or header columns properly marked up in the spreadsheet document itself. People who do not have Excel on their computers will likely not be able to access the content at all . B. You can export the Excel spreadsheet to HTML using the features built into Excel. You will need to make sure that the proper markup is included for the headings and data cells. C. You can re-create the tables from scratch using an HTML editor. From an accessibility standpoint, options B, and C are preferable, each with its own specific advantages. in the context of Internet-based content. There are a few ways to put spreadsheets on the Web. A. You can put Excel spreadsheets directly on the web in their native format. As such, the end user will need to have Excel installed on the computer in order to get an accessible version, *plus* the Excel spreadsheet would have to be created with logical header rows and/or header columns properly marked up in the spreadsheet document itself. People who do not have Excel on their computers will likely not be able to access the content at all . B. You can export the Excel spreadsheet to HTML using the features built into Excel. You will need to make sure that the proper markup is included for the headings and data cells. C. You can re-create the tables from scratch using an HTML editor.

3. Module 1 ? Introduction and HHS Document Requirements Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents In this Module we are going to discuss the HHS requirements for creating PDF Documents In this Module we are going to discuss the HHS requirements for creating PDF Documents

4. Layout and Formatting Requirements Merged cells should not be used within the data section of the table [ideally not at all] Merged cells should only be used for formatting purposes i.e. within the non-data section of the table. For example, merging the cells within a table header would be acceptable but would not be acceptable within the data area of the table.Merged cells should only be used for formatting purposes i.e. within the non-data section of the table. For example, merging the cells within a table header would be acceptable but would not be acceptable within the data area of the table.

5. Layout and Formatting Requirements All active worksheets in the workbook should have clear and concise names that allows the user (and screen reader) to identify the source and contents of the table

6. Layout and Formatting Requirements Tables should be prefixed with the table name and table number (if applicable) This information should be separated from the actual data table so that the screen reader can present it prior to reading the data table Table name should correlate with worksheet (tab) name.Table name should correlate with worksheet (tab) name.

7. Layout and Formatting Requirements Table header rows are formatted to repeat on the top of the table is it goes from one page to another This will allow the screen reader to re-state the header information to the user as the table continues from one page to another Notice we have moved from row 5 on the first page to row 17 on the second page ? headings still appear because the heading pane is frozen ? we will show this later in the lesson ? this is very important for people with low vision and cognitive impairments and it is just good usability Notice we have moved from row 5 on the first page to row 17 on the second page ? headings still appear because the heading pane is frozen ? we will show this later in the lesson ? this is very important for people with low vision and cognitive impairments and it is just good usability

8. Layout and Formatting Requirements All worksheets should be absent of flickering/flashing text and/or animated text All hyperlinks should display the fully qualified URL (i.e. http://www.hhs.gov, not www.hhs.gov) All hyperlinks should be active (i.e. validate to an active and correct Web destination) When creating an accessible Excel document or when reviewing an Excel document for 508 compliance, there are conditions must be considered and we will discuss them over the next several slides. They are: Layout and Formatting Requirements Image Requirements Table Requirements Additional Requirements All worksheets should be absent of flickering/flashing text and/or animated text All hyperlinks should display the fully qualified URL i.e. http://www.hhs.gov, not www.hhs.gov All hyperlinks should be active i.e. validate to an active Web destinationWhen creating an accessible Excel document or when reviewing an Excel document for 508 compliance, there are conditions must be considered and we will discuss them over the next several slides. They are: Layout and Formatting Requirements Image Requirements Table Requirements Additional Requirements All worksheets should be absent of flickering/flashing text and/or animated text All hyperlinks should display the fully qualified URL i.e. http://www.hhs.gov, not www.hhs.gov All hyperlinks should be active i.e. validate to an active Web destination

9. Layout and Formatting Requirements Text Boxes or Graphics (with embedded text) are not accessible Text Boxes are form objects ? not text in a cell Any text within Text Boxes or Graphics (with embedded text) will not be accessible and will not be adequately identified by the screen reader application. Any text within Text Boxes or Graphics (with embedded text) will not be accessible and will not be adequately identified by the screen reader application.

10. Layout and Formatting Requirements Color should not be used to as the primary means of emphasis [use an asterisk, border, or other identifier]. This doesn?t mean you can?t use color ? just not color alone. Color should not be used to as the primary means of emphasis ? here an asterisk is also usedThis doesn?t mean you can?t use color ? just not color alone. Color should not be used to as the primary means of emphasis ? here an asterisk is also used

11. Layout and Formatting Requirements Changes must be accepted or rejected Track changes must be turned off Track Changes must be accepted or rejected and turned off for final document distributionTrack Changes must be accepted or rejected and turned off for final document distribution

12. Image Requirements All worksheets with multi-layered objects must be flattened into one image and use one alternative text (alt text) for this image All graphics (images, grouped images and non-text elements) that convey information should have Alternative Text (Alt Text) associated with them Images used only for decoration (do not convey information) should have blank Alt Text All graphics (images, grouped images and non-text elements) that convey information should have Alternative Text (Alt Text) associated with them Images used only for decoration (do not convey information) should have blank Alt Text

13. Image Requirements [Charts] Charts are a collection of accessible objects and are not grouped All charts should have a Title, Legend and Axis labels associated with them This will give users a number of references point to use in order to correctly interpret the information being presented All graphics (images, grouped images and non-text elements) that convey information should have captions associated with them Images used only for decoration (do not convey information) should have blank Alt Tags All graphics (images, grouped images and non-text elements) that convey information should have captions associated with them Images used only for decoration (do not convey information) should have blank Alt Tags

14. Image Requirements Complex images (i.e. charts, graphs, flowcharts, etc.) must have descriptive text immediately after the image All graphics (images, grouped images and non-text elements) that convey information should have Alternative Text (Alt Text) associated with them Images used only for decoration (do not convey information) should have blank Alt Tags All graphics (images, grouped images and non-text elements) that convey information should have Alternative Text (Alt Text) associated with them Images used only for decoration (do not convey information) should have blank Alt Tags

15. Table Requirements Tables should have a logical layout of the information based on rows and columns Tables should be oriented so that they are read from left to right and top to bottom Tables should have clear, concise and readily identifiable row and column headers

16. Table Requirements Data in a table should be absent of merged cells Merged cells are only acceptable in the header row of the data table Row/column headers should start in the first left-hand column of the data table (not the worksheet)

17. Excel 508 Requirement A separate accessible alternative version of the document should be provided when there is no other way to make the content accessible

18. Excel Best Practices When practical, formula cells that affect cells in other worksheets should be indicated with a notation in a cell in order to alert users of the functionality

19. Excel Best Practices The document must utilize the recommended fonts i.e. Times New Roman, Verdana, Arial, Tahoma and Helvetica The document file name must be concise, generally be limited to 20-30 characters, to make the content of the file clear in the context in which it is presented [required for web posting] The document file name must not contain spaces or special characters (!,;:?{}@/\=+parentheses?

20. Excel Best Practices Use Document Properties Summary tab Shows document creator and ownership Gives author of the document Further contact information The Document Properties (i.e. Subject, Author, Title, Keywords, and Language) must be properly filled out. Note: For ?Author? do not use individuals name or contractor name. Should use government organization name (i.e., HHS).The Document Properties (i.e. Subject, Author, Title, Keywords, and Language) must be properly filled out. Note: For ?Author? do not use individuals name or contractor name. Should use government organization name (i.e., HHS).

21. Accommodations Some Excel workbooks cannot be made fully compliant (e.g. VBA applications) In this case, the workbook must be as accessible as possible An accommodation may be offered if approved by the OPDIV 508 coordinator and ASPA.

22. Overview You have completed Module 1 You can now describe the HHS requirements when creating an Excel document

23. Module 2: Designing Accessible Excel Documents Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents

24. Labeling Columns and Rows Headers Provides information about the column or row cells and how they relate to one another Row Headers Defined in the first column Column Headers Defined in the first row Spreadsheets are made up of columns rows and their intersections are called cells In each cell there may be the following types of data text (labels) number data (constants) formulas (mathematical equations that do all the work)Spreadsheets are made up of columns rows and their intersections are called cells In each cell there may be the following types of data text (labels) number data (constants) formulas (mathematical equations that do all the work)

25. Labeling Columns and Rows Two methods for labeling Row and Column headers Method One: Highlight the table and from the Format tab select Auto Format Select a template from those provided Select the OK button. Method 1 is easier and ideal for simple (non multi-level) tablesMethod 1 is easier and ideal for simple (non multi-level) tables

26. Labeling Columns and Rows Method Two: Highlight the Row or Column headers and from the Insert tab select Name and then select Label The Label Ranges screen appears with the range that was highlighted. Select the Add button The label range appears with the Existing label ranges field Notice that the Column labels radio button is selected Select the OK button Method 2 works better for complex (multi-level tables)Method 2 works better for complex (multi-level tables)

27. Labeling Columns and Rows Important: Title all tables Facilitates table identification Helps reader understand the table?s purpose Make sure headers are associated with Rows and Columns Whenever possible, avoid using two or more data tables on the same worksheet Tables ought to have some sort of title or caption to them. Tables ought to have some sort of title or caption to them.

28. Freeze Pane for Column Headers To lock rows, select the row below where you want the split to appear. To lock columns, select the column to the right of where you want the split to appear. To lock both rows and columns, click the cell below and to the right of where you want the split to appear. On the Window menu, click Freeze Panes. To unlock rows, click Unfreeze Panes on the Window menu. Explain the value of freezing columns and rows ? especially to persons with mobility and visual impairmentsExplain the value of freezing columns and rows ? especially to persons with mobility and visual impairments

29. Freeze Pane for Column Headers Demo showing freeze panes: Good usability for anyone ? good for cognitive and low vision To lock rows, select the row below where you want the split to appear. To lock columns, select the column to the right of where you want the split to appear. To lock both rows and columns, click the cell below and to the right of where you want the split to appear. On the Window menu, click Freeze Panes. To unlock rows, click Unfreeze Panes on the Window menu.Demo showing freeze panes: Good usability for anyone ? good for cognitive and low vision To lock rows, select the row below where you want the split to appear. To lock columns, select the column to the right of where you want the split to appear. To lock both rows and columns, click the cell below and to the right of where you want the split to appear. On the Window menu, click Freeze Panes. To unlock rows, click Unfreeze Panes on the Window menu.

30. Creating a Chart Apply Legend A legend acts as a keyed index Apply Title Title the chart Title the X axis and Y axis Remind about objects and not to group charts When looking at sufficient contrast use: Vischeck - http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck/ A program that will simulate what your images or web page would look like to a person with various types of color-blindness. The service is available for free either online or for download. It is a quick and easy way to see if your color scheme is accessible. Remind about objects and not to group charts When looking at sufficient contrast use: Vischeck - http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck/ A program that will simulate what your images or web page would look like to a person with various types of color-blindness. The service is available for free either online or for download. It is a quick and easy way to see if your color scheme is accessible.

31. Adding Alternative Text Alternative Text Alternative Text must be considered for all images other than charts Provides a text description of an image or graphic Informative Images Information conveyed by way of the image needs a text equivalent An example of a informative image is a flowchart or graph Descriptive Images Provide basic information about the image An example of a decorative image is a logo This applies to Non-chart images ONLY.This applies to Non-chart images ONLY.

32. Adding Alternative Text Add alternative text to images by using the Format Picture tool Right click on the image and select Format Picture from the drop down menu Select the Web tab and then add alternative text in the Alternative Text: box

33. Making Comments Accessible From the Insert tab Comments can be added to a data cell Comments added with the Comment tool are not accessible Comment tool text is not searchable To be accessible Comments must be added as text in a cell instead of using the Comment Word tool. Add the comment as a note Identify the cell(s) to which the comment refers Make sure comments are appropriate (e.g. ?only a bonehead would not understand this?)Make sure comments are appropriate (e.g. ?only a bonehead would not understand this?)

34. Internet and Excel You can put Excel spreadsheets directly on the Web in their native format Some commercial products are available You can re-create the tables from scratch using an HTML editor From an accessibility standpoint, option C is preferable You can put Excel spreadsheets directly on the web in their native format. As such, the end user will need to have Excel installed on the computer in order to get an accessible version, *plus* the Excel spreadsheet would have to be created with logical header rows and/or header columns properly marked up in the spreadsheet document itself. Any macros or VBA programming will not function when the free Excel Viewer is used. People who do not have Excel on their computers will likely not be able to access the content at all . You can use a commercial products: From an accessibility standpoint, option C is preferableYou can put Excel spreadsheets directly on the web in their native format. As such, the end user will need to have Excel installed on the computer in order to get an accessible version, *plus* the Excel spreadsheet would have to be created with logical header rows and/or header columns properly marked up in the spreadsheet document itself. Any macros or VBA programming will not function when the free Excel Viewer is used. People who do not have Excel on their computers will likely not be able to access the content at all . You can use a commercial products: From an accessibility standpoint, option C is preferable

35. Module 3: Test and Remediate Excel Documents Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents

36. Excel Testing Overview When testing your Excel documents look for: Column and Row Headers Charts Images Alternative Text Comments and Notes Worksheet Titles If a document fails any of these tests, it must be returned to its originator for remediation.If a document fails any of these tests, it must be returned to its originator for remediation.

37. Check Excel Document Column and Row Headers must be labeled Check for merged cells in headings and rows Ensure that tables spanning multiple pages have headings that associate with each page Only one data table per worksheet is highly recommended Headers Provides information about the column or row cells and how they relate to one another Row Headers Defined in the first column Column Headers Defined in the first row Important Title all tables Make sure headers are associated with Rows and ColumnsHeaders Provides information about the column or row cells and how they relate to one another Row Headers Defined in the first column Column Headers Defined in the first row Important Title all tables Make sure headers are associated with Rows and Columns

38. Test Charts Check for proper labeling: Title Legend Axis Check Legend A legend acts as a keyed index Check Titles for: the chart the X axis and Y axisCheck Legend A legend acts as a keyed index Check Titles for: the chart the X axis and Y axis

39. Test Alternative Text All images and charts require alternative text Alt Text is applied and checked in the same way as Word in the Format Picture menu Alternative Text Provides a text description of an image or graphic Informative Images Information conveyed by way of the image needs a text equivalent. An example of a informative image is a flowchart or graph Descriptive Images Provide basic information about the image. An example of a decorative image is a logoAlternative Text Provides a text description of an image or graphic Informative Images Information conveyed by way of the image needs a text equivalent. An example of a informative image is a flowchart or graph Descriptive Images Provide basic information about the image. An example of a decorative image is a logo

40. Test Comments and Notes Check that comments and notes are not hidden Formula cells that affect and change cells in the worksheet or other worksheets must be indicated with a notation in a cell in order to alert users of the functionality Make clear that in some cases it may not be practical to put the formulae as notes. Comments created using the Insert tab on the Main menu must be deleted or made accessible Comments are not accessible Comment text is not searchable Making Comments accessible Check that Comments are typed in a cell at the end of the table and identify what cell the comment refers toMake clear that in some cases it may not be practical to put the formulae as notes. Comments created using the Insert tab on the Main menu must be deleted or made accessible Comments are not accessible Comment text is not searchable Making Comments accessible Check that Comments are typed in a cell at the end of the table and identify what cell the comment refers to

41. Check Worksheets For Titles Worksheet titles should accurately describe content Tab name should correlate to the table name that is in the worksheet itself There is a 32 character limit on worksheet titles.Tab name should correlate to the table name that is in the worksheet itself There is a 32 character limit on worksheet titles.

42. Remediate Legacy Office Documents To remediate legacy Excel, PowerPoint or Word documents, do the following: Save the legacy document in current HHS MS Office version. Test the document Use simple remediation tools and procedures such as: Format Picture tool to add alternative text to images Remove comments in Comment tool and make them text cells Check charts and make accessible Save the document using a different file name

43. Summary You have completed Creating Accessible Excel Documents You have learned the four steps for making Excel spreadsheets Section 508 compliant: Label Column and Row headers Properly create charts Add text descriptions to images and charts in the form of Alternative (Alt) text or captions Make comments and hidden notes accessible Test each document for accessibility

44. Resources - Government Web Communications & New Media Division http://www.hhs.gov/web/policies/index.html#508 HHS 508 Training ? contact your Webmaster Federal Government 508 Policy, Training and Resources http://www.section508.gov/

45. ASPA Web Communications and New Media Division http://www.hhs.gov/web/ http://508.hhs.gov/ Creating Section 508 Compliant Excel Documents


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