Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe. Lecture 18 Sites of Mourning - Sites of Glory Week 10, Spring TermTerm. Outline Russia: great victory - gigantic monuments Ukraine: divided memory - contested monuments Poland: official memory vs. private memory Conclusion.
Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe
Sites of Mourning - Sites of Glory
Week 10, Spring TermTerm
The Great Patriotic War and Soviet memory policy
Giving meaning to war quite successful: acceptance of heroic fight against foreign aggression – justification for suffering, for many war veterans and also civilians: most important event of their life. Feeling of unity between regime and population.
The Great Patriotic War and the Soviet memory policy
Excluded from official memory
A.A. Kokorekin, The love of the whole nation for the victorious fighter, 1944
A.T. Danilichev, The Liberator of Pskov, 1944
Victory parade in 1945
N.N. Zhukov, We have fought for peace for the nations – we will defend it!
Moscow, Leningrad, 1950
Motherland monument in Stalingrad/Volgograd, Mamayev Kurgan
Russian war veterans, 2005
Ukraine – the divided memory
Glory to the liberators of Ukraine!
Death to the German invaders!
Moscow, Leningrad 1941
Motherland statue, Kiev, 1981, 62 m
National Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 years
"For an independent and sovereign Ukrainian State" On the flag: "For Liberty and a better life." A woodcut by Nil Khasevich, an underground UPA artist
Veterans of the wartime Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) talk as one holds a portrait of UPA leader Stepan Bandera during skirmishes which broke out at rallies in central Kiev on October 15, 2005, a day devoted to remembering the 63rd anniversary of the founding of UPA. Communists and other leftists denounce any notion of official recognition for the UPA, which fought both Nazi invaders and Soviet troops in the war.
Victory Day in Kiev 2004
Lviv - Monument and cemetery of the soldiers of the two Ukrainian SS divisions
Lviv - Monument on the new Ukrainian memorial
„To the soldiers of the Ukrainian National Army, fallen in battle - faithful successors of the heroes of the fight for liberation for the freedom of the Fatherland“
Lviv - tomb of a soldier of the SS Division Galicia
„Here rests an unknown warrior of the division „Halychyna“ who gave in July 1944 at Brody his life for the freedom of the Ukrainian nation“
Lviv - Monument of the leader of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (B), Stepan Bandera, unveiled in November 2007 in Lviv
New monument of Stepan Bandera in Drohobych, Western Ukraine
Poland and the Memory of WWII
Opposition view (exiles, church, samizdat, private memory)
Official memory only reflects part of private memory and personal experiences
Polish Communist propaganda poster, 1940s
The Giant and the dwarf of reactionism
Soviet War Memorial in Warsaw
Remembering Polish victims of Nazi terror, 1960s – 1980s
Part of the new monument of the Warsaw Rising in Warsaw
New Polish monument, remembering the Polish victims of the NKVD and the Soviet terror
Monument to the Victims of the Soviet Aggression of 17th September 1939, Warsaw, Poland