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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' CLUSTERING SCHEMES FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK' - nguyet

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Presentation Transcript

Outline

- Introduction
- Clustering Scheme Overview
- Classifying Clustering Schemes
- DS-based clustering
- Wu’s CDS Algorithm
- Chen’s WCDS Algorithm
- Summary of DS-based Clustering

Introduction

- Dynamic routing is the most important issue in MANETs
- A flat structure encounters scalability problem
- Proactive routing protocols is O(n^2)
- Reactive routing sheme:
- RREQ flooding over the whole network
- Route setup delay
- A hierarchical architecture

Clustering Scheme Overview

- Virtual group
- Clusterhead
- a local coordinator, performing intra-cluster transmission arrangement, data forwarding
- Clustergateway
- non-clusterhead node with inter-cluster links access neighboring clusters, forward information between clusters
- Clustermember
- ordinary node, non-clusterhead node without any inter-cluster links

Three Benefits

- spatial reuse of resources to increase the system capacity
- the same frequency or code set
- routing
- The generation and spreading of routing information can be restricted in the set of clusterheads and clustergateways
- an ad hoc network appear smaller and more stable in the view of each mobile terminal
- when a mobile node changes its attaching cluster, only nodes residing in the corresponding clusters need to update the information

The cost of clustering (1/3)

- Explicit control message for clustering
- Clustering requires explicit clustering-related information exchanged between node pairs
- Ripple effect of re-clustering
- The re-election of a single clusterhead may affect the cluster structure of many other clusters and completely alter the cluster topology over the whole network

The cost of clustering (2/3)

- Stationary assumption for cluster formation
- Assume that mobile nodes keep static when cluster formation is in progress
- Constant Computation round
- Computation round is the number of rounds that a cluster formation procedure

The cost of clustering (3/3)

- Communication complexity
- The total amount of clustering-related message exchanged for the cluster formation

Classifying Clustering Schemes(1/3)

- DS-based clustering
- Finding a (weakly) connected dominating set to reduce the number of nodes participating in route search or routing table maintenance
- Low-maintenance clustering
- Providing a cluster infrastructure for upper layer applications with minimized clustering-related maintenance cost

Classifying Clustering Schemes(2/3)

- Mobility-aware clustering
- Utilizing mobile nodes’ mobility behavior for cluster construction and maintenance and assigning mobile nodes with low relative speed to the same cluster to tighten the connection in such a cluster
- Energy-efficient clustering
- Avoiding unnecessary energy consumption or balancing energy consumption for mobile nodes in order to prolong the lifetime of mobile terminals and a network

Classifying Clustering Schemes(3/3)

- Load-balancing clustering
- Distributing the workload of a network more evenly into clusters by limiting the number of mobile nodes in each cluster in a defined range
- Combined-metrics-based clustering
- Considering multiple metrics in cluster configuration, including node degree, mobility, battery energy, cluster size

DS-based clustering

- A dominating set of a graph G= (V, E) is a vertex subset S⊆V , such that every vertex v∈V is either in S or adjacent to a vertex of S
- A connected dominating set (CDS) of a graph G is a dominating set whose induced graph is connected

DS-based clustering(cont.)

- Table-driven routing
- Only codes in the CDS are required to construct and maintain the routing tables
- On-demand routing
- The route search space is limited to the CDS
- To keep a DS connected and with approximately minimum size is not a trivial task

DS-based clustering AlgorithmWu’s CDS Algorithm

- Marking Process
- To find CDS
- Prune redundant nodes from CDS
- To reduce the size of CDS

Marking Process

Define a network as a graph G = (V,E)

- Initially, all nodes are unmarked
- Every v exchanges its N(v) with all its neighbors
- Mark v if there exists 2 unconnected neighbors

Example

A B C E

Open neighbors set of all nodes:

N(A) = {B,D}

N(B) = {A,C,D}

N(C) = {B, E}

N(D) = {A, B}

N(E) = {C}

D

After step 2:

A: N(B), N(D)

B: N(A), N(C), N(D)

C: N(B), N(E)

D: N(A), N(B)

E: N(C)

Prune redundant nodes from CDS

- Assign a distinct id, id(v) to each vertex v in G
- Define N[v] as a closed neighbor set of v

Prune redundant nodes from CDS

- Rule 1: Considers two vertices v and u in G’. If N[v] N[u] in G, and id(v) < id(u),change the marker of v to F if node v is marded

Prune redundant nodes from CDS

- Rule 2: Assume u and w are two marked neighbors of marked vertex v in G’. If N(v) N(u) U N(w) in G and id(v) = min{id(v), id(u), id(w)}, then unmark v.

DS-based clustering AlgorithmChen’s WCDS Algorithm

- Reduce the number of clusters by relaxing the connectivity requirement
- The subgraph weakly induced by S(S⊆V) is the graph <S>w=(N [S], E ∩ (N [S]×S)).
- <S>w includes the vertices in S and all of their neighbors as vertex set
- The edges of <S>w are all edges of G which have at least one end point in S

Weakly-connected dominating set

- A vertex subset S is a weakly-connected dominating set (WCDS), if S is a dominating set and <S>w is connected

Algorithms for finding small WCDS

- Algorithm I and II: Two centralized algorithms
- Algorithm III and IV: Distributed Implementations of Algorithm I and II
- Algorithm V: Distributed Asynchronous Approach

Chen’s WCDS Algo I (overview)

- Given a graph G=(V,E), each vertex is associated with a color (white, gray, or black)
- All vertices are initially colored white
- In each iteration, the algorithm color a white or gray vertex black and all its neighboring white vertices gray
- At the end, the black vertices form a weakly-connected dominating set

Term: piece

- Piece refers to a particular substructure of the graph
- A white piece is simply

a white vertex

- A black piece contains a

maximal set of black

vertices whose weakly

induced subgraph is

connected plus any

adjacent gray vertices

The pieces are indicated by dotted regions

Term: improvement

- The improvement of a (non-black) vertex u is the number of pieces that would be merged into a single black piece if u were to be dyed black
- In last example, dying vertex 5 black would merge 4 piece, while dying vertex 4 would merge 3 pieces

Chen’s WCDS Algo I(detail)

- In each iteration, the algorithm choose a single white or gray vertex to dye black
- The vertex is chosen greedily: a vertex with maximum improvement is chosen
- Until there is only one piece left

References

- J. Y. YU and P. H. J. CHONG, "A Survey of Clustering Schemes for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, First Quarter 2005, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 32--48.
- J. Wu and H. L. Li, “On Calculating Connected Dominating Set for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. 3rd Int’l. Wksp. Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Comp. and Commun., 1999, pp. 7–14
- Y.-Z. P. Chen and A. L. Liestman, “Approximating Minimum Size Weakly-Connected Dominating Sets for Clustering Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proc. 3rd ACM Int’l. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Net. & Comp., June 2002, pp. 165–72.

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