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If an infant consumes 3 ½ ounces of formula how many mL was consumed?
grains (gr) to milligrams (mg)
gr 1 = 60 mg
gr ¾ = 45 mg
gr ½ = 30 mg
gr ¼ = 15 mg
Pounds to kilograms
How to calculate medication dose using ration / proportion
24 hour fluid calculations
Naso-gastric drainage replacement
Pounds to Kilograms
Pounds to kilograms = pounds
In pediatrics you need to carry out to the hundredths (do not round)
20 pounds 5 ounces
First need to convert 5 ounces to a fraction of a pound 5 divided by 16 = 0.31
20.31 pounds divided by 2.2 = 9.23 kilograms
Note medication would be calculated based on 9.23 kilograms. DO NOT ROUND
Calculations of pounds to kilograms
If a child weighs 84 lbs, what is the weight in kg?
84lb = ____ kg
84 divided by 2.2 = 39.18 kg
Pounds to kilograms
If a child weights 6 lbs 6 ounces what is the weight in kg?
6 ounces = 0.37 pounds
6.37 pounds divided by 2.2 kg = 2.89 kg
mg / kg dosing based on weight
Safe dosing ranges
IV pediatric infusion rates
IV administration of meds per volutrol or syringe pump.
24 hour fluid calculation
Nasogastric fluid replacement
For a dosage of medication to be safe, it must fall within the safe range as listed in a Drug Handbook, PDR or other reliable drug reference.
Dosage based on mg/kg and Body Surface Area
The dose of most pediatrics drugs is based on mg/kg body weight or Body Surface Area (BSA) in meters squared.
For testing purposed mg / kg will be used.
BSA method of calculations may be seen in NICU, ICU and high acuity areas.
Safe Medication Dose
Calculate daily dose ordered (Physician orders)
Calculate the low and high parameters of safe range (from drug book)
Compare the patient’s daily dose to see if it falls within the safe range.
How to calculate pediatric medication amount per day and per dose:
Video can be accessed through www.pedstudent.com under medication link
A child is 2 years and weighs 36 lbs
Physician order: Amoxicillin 215 mg po tid for a bilateral otitis media (ear infection)
First you would need to change 36 lbs to kg
36 divided by 2.2
Patient weight in kg = 16.36 kg
Calculating Safe Range
Davis drug guide: PO (children) < 40 kg: Amoxacillin 6.7 to 13.3 mg / kg q 8 hours.
(low range)16.36 x 6.7 = 109.6 mg q 8hours
(high range)16.36 x 13.3 = 217.5 mg q 8 hours
109.6 mg to 217.5 mg of Amoxicillin Q 8 hours.
Is the 215 mg dose ordered by the MD safe? Yes (it falls within the safe range)
How much medication do you give?
Amoxicillin Suspension comes:
250 mg per 5 mL you want to give 215 mg
250 mg215 mg
5 ml = x ml
Give 4.3 mL po every 8 hours
Administration of mL / pediatric
mL can be administered up to the tenths
PO medication via oral syringe
Safe Dose Ranges
Read the medication ranges carefully: dosing can be for:
dose range for 24 hours
dose range for q 8 hours
dose range for q 12 hours
Crucial in the pediatric population
Units often have policies that children under a certain age are on a fluid control pump.
Fluid overload must be avoided
Time over which a medication should be administered is critical information
Minimal dilution (end concentration of medication) is important for medications such as aminoglycosides.
Collecting therapeutic blood levels
Know what the IV rate is.
Hourly recording of IV fluid intake.
Don’t try and catch up on fluids.
Calculate fluids used to administer IV medications into the hourly fluid calculations.
Daily Fluid Needs
Fluid needs should be calculated on every patient to assure that the infant / child is receiving the correct amount of fluids.
Standard formula for pediatrics needs to be memorized.
IV fluid calculations
The maintenance dose for administration of IV fluids is based on the following formula
100 mL of fluid for the 1st 10 kg of weight
50 mL of fluid for the 2nd 10 kg of weight
20 mL of fluid for and additional kg
You need to memorize this
Jose weighs 16 pounds
Weight in kg = 7.27 kg
Using the formula provided how many ml of fluid would he need in 24 hours.
100 mL x 7.27 kg = 727 mL
727 mL / 24 hours or 30 mL per hour
64 pound child
Convert pounds to kilograms = 29.09 kg
100 mL x 10 kg = 1000 mL
50 ml x 10 kg = 500 mL
20 ml x 9.09 kg = 181 mL
1681 mL / 24 hours or 70 mL / hour
Fluid calculations can be rounded. You cannot administer a fraction of a mL.
In child #1 the calculated hourly rate of 29.7 would be rounded to 30 mL / hour.
In child #2 the calculated hourly rate of 70.04 would be rounded to 70 mL / hour.
Since children are in the hospital for various illnesses they will often have increased fluid needs: dehydration, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, inability to take po fluids.
24 hour fluid calculations may be 1 ½ to 2 times maintenance.
Child number #1 maintenance fluid needs are 713 mL / 24 hours.
1 ½ time maintenance would be 713 x 1.5 = 1069 mL / 24 hours or 45 mL / hour.
In child # 2 maintenance fluid needs are 1681 mL / 24 hours.
1 ½ times maintenance would be 1681 x 1.5 = 2522 mL / 24 hours or 105 mL / hour.
A buretrol or volutrol is an inline receptacle between the client’s IV catheter set and the bag of fluids.
Capacity is 120 to 150 mL
Rationale: the nurse can fill the buretrol to a certain level and if the IV pump malfunctions, only the volume in the buretrol will flow to the client.
Flushing buretrols / solusets
Two great articles that explain the concept of “flushing” the line after giving an IV medication
Parenteral Pediatric Medications
Step 1: Convert lb to kg
Step 2: Determine the safe range in mg/kg
Step 3: Decide whether the dose is safe by comparing the order with safe dose range
Step 4. Calculate the dose needed
Step 5. Check reference for diluent and duration for administration.
Child: 5 years: weight 44 lbs
Order: famotidine (Pepcid) 5 mg IV bid
Drug Guide Information
0.5 mg / kg / day divided twice daily (maximum 40 mg / day)
Administration: May be administered IV push over a period not less than 2 minutes or as an intermittent infusion over 15 to 30 minutes; final concentration not to exceed 4 mg/mL.
Convert pounds to kg: 44 lb = 20 kg
Determine safe dose:
20 kg x 0.5 mg = 100 mg
100 mg divided by 2 (drug is given twice a day)
5 mg is safe it meets mg / kg rule and does not exceed 40 mg/day.
5 mg bid = total of 10 mg/day
Calculate the dose
Pepcid is provided as 10 mg/mL
10 mg = 5 mg
1 mL x mL
10x 0.5 mL of Pepcid
Child: 4 years: weight 17 kg
Physician order: Fortaz (Ceftazidime) 280 mg IV q 8 hours
Drug Guide Information
Safe dose 30 to 50 mg/kg/day
Drug supplied as 1 gram powder. Directions: Dilute with 10 mL of sterile water to equal 95 mg/mL.
Administration: intravenous infusion over 15 to 30 minutes; may be given IV over 3-5 minutes at final concentration of 100 mg/mL
Safe dose is 30 to 50 mg/kg/day
Low range: 17 kg x 30 mg = 510 mg/day
High range: 17 kg x 50 mg = 859 mg/day
Safe range is 510 to 859 mg/day or 170 to 286 per dose.
If the order is to give the drug q 8 hours you would need to divide the safe range by 3 or multiple the q 8 hour dose x 3.
Drawing up the medication:
1 gram / 10 mL or 95 mg / 1 mL
95 mg = 280 mg280
1 mL x mL 95x = 2.94 mL or 2.9 mL
DO NOT ROUND UP TO 3 mL
Example # 2
Adding medication to the volutrol
Take the 2.9 mL of Ceftazidine – inject it into the port on the volutrol and add additional IV fluid to = 10 mL.
Example # 2
The flush: evidence based practice has demonstrated that in an effort to get the IV medication from the volutrol to the patient the line needs to be flushed with 20 mL of IV fluid after the medication is into the IV line.
What about the flush?
THE PHYSICIAN ORDER WILL NEVER STATE TO FLUSH THE LINE – YOU MUST DO THIS WITH EACH IV MEDICATION
The drug guide states that the drug can be safely administer over 30 minutes.
10 mL (medication) + 20 mL flush following the medication = 30 mL of fluid that needs to infuse over 30 minutes.
The pump would need to be set at 60 mL for the medication + the flush to be infused over ½ hour.
NG – cc/cc replacement
If a child has a nasogastric tube that is draining fluid the physician will often write and order for:
NG drainage – cc/cc replacement q 4 hours
What does this mean?
NG output is measures q 4 hours.
At the beginning of the shift the night nurse reports that the drainage was 150 mL for the last 4 hours and you need to replace this over the next four hours.
Note: this is in addition to the IV hourly rate ordered.
IV hourly rate is 115 mL/hour
NG output to be replaced over the next 4 hours is 150 cc’s or 37 mL/hour.
IV would be set at 115 mL + 37 mL = You would run the IV at 152 mL / hour for the next four hours.
Do the practice problems.
Can be done individually or in groups.
Testing will be on like problems.
You must achieve 90% or better to be able to safely administer medications in the clinical setting.
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