Nutrition ii
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Nutrition II. Nutrients. Macronutrients. Micronutrients. Carbohydrate. Vitamins. Fat. Minerals. Protein. H 2 O. Micronutrients and H 2 O. vitamins and minerals found in variety of foods balanced diet  no supplementation (Ca ++ ). Vitamins. Accessory nutrients (C,H,O)

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Nutrition II

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Nutrition ii

Nutrition II


Nutrients

Nutrients

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

Carbohydrate

Vitamins

Fat

Minerals

Protein

H2O


Micronutrients and h 2 o

Micronutrients and H2O

  • vitamins and minerals

  • found in variety of foods

  • balanced diet  no supplementation (Ca++)


Vitamins

Vitamins

  • Accessory nutrients (C,H,O)

  • Supplied thru diet (except D)

  • Manufactured during photosynthesis


Types of vitamins

Types of Vitamins

  • Lipid soluble

    - A, D, E, and K

  • Water soluble

    - C

    - B: B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid


Lipid soluble

Lipid Soluble

  • Should not be consumed in excess

  • E.g. kidney damage 20 excess D


Water soluble

Water Soluble

  • Generally not stored

  • Excess is voided


Role of vitamins

Role of Vitamins

  • Links & regulators in energy releasing reactions

  • Control tissue synthesis


Supplementation

Supplementation

Supplementation

Proper Diet Repeated Use

However?


Supplementation1

Supplementation

  • Exceptions:

    - C

    - B – folic acid

    - B1 and B6 (some athletes)

    - B12 in vegetarians


Antioxidant role

Antioxidant Role

  • Free radicals - highly chemically reactive molecules/fragments

  • Produced in body:

    - O2-, H202, OH-

  • Produced in environment:

    - smoke, pollutants, medications


Antioxidant role1

Antioxidant Role

  •  free radicals   oxidative stress/cellular damage

  •  oxidation of LDL   atherosclerosis

  • Oxidataive stress  cell deterioration, advanced aging, CA, DM, CAD


Antioxidant vitamins

Antioxidant Vitamins

  • A (& precursor -carotene), C , E

    • Protect plasma membrane

  • -carotene & C   CA

  • E & -carotene   CAD, blood clots


Recent research

Recent Research

  •  roundworm life by 50%

  • synthetic drugs that mimic:

    • superoxide dismutase

    • catalase

  • persist longer than vitamins


Vitamins and exercise

Vitamins and Exercise

  • B-complex – coenzymes for CHO, lipid, & protein catabolism  energy

  • Contribute to Hb synthesis (RBC)


Megavitamins

Megavitamins

  • 10-1000x RDA


Minerals

Minerals

  • Elements

  • Constituents of enzymes, hormones, vitamins

  • Combine w/ other chemicals (calcium phosphate in bone, heme blood)

  • Critical for certain processes (muscle contraction)


Minerals1

Minerals

  • Naturally occurring

  • Supplementation unnecessary (except Ca, Fe)

  • Excess can be toxic


Roles of minerals

Roles of Minerals

Structure (bones/teeth)

Function:

- heart rhythm

- muscle contraction

- neural conductivity

- acid-base balance


Roles of minerals1

Roles of Minerals

Regulation

  • Cell metabolism (enzymes/hormones)

  • Balance catabolism/metabolism

    • electrolytes


Calcium

Calcium

  • Osteoporosis

  • :

    - less bone density to start

    - reduced intake teenage years

    -  activity

    -  estrogen / menopause

  • Other factors: smoking, alcohol abuse


Prevention

Prevention

  • Ca++ supplementation

  • Vitamin D availability

  • Estrogen therapy

  • W/b activities (consistent)

  • Avoid excessive meat, salt, coffee, alcohol


Prevention1

Prevention

  • 20 amenorrhea   estrogen


Phosporus

Phosporus

  • Provides rigidity to bones & teeth

  • Essential to ATP, CP

  • Combines w/ lipids  plasma membrane

  • Buffer acids produced 20 heavy exercise


Magnesium

Magnesium

Involved in:

  • anabolism of serum glucose  liver/muscle glycogen

  • catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, AA

  • anabolism of lipids & proteins

  • nerve conduction and muscle action


Nutrition ii

Iron

  • Found in:

    - hemoglobin

    - myoglobin

    - cytochromes


Iron deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia

  •  hemoglobin conc.

  • Sluggishness

  • Loss of appetite

  • Reduced capacity for exercise

  • Common in 


Iron deficiency anemia in females

Iron-deficiency anemia in Females

  • Pregnancy

  • Menstruation

  • Vegetarian diet

    - animal Fe more readily absorbed


Iron rda

Iron RDA


Exercise induced anemia

Exercise-Induced Anemia?

  • Loss of iron thru:

    - Perspiration

    - Urine 20 RBC destruction &  temp.

    - Spleen activity

    - Mechanical RBC destruction

  • Probably minimal


Supplementation2

Supplementation?

  • Hematological work-up

  • Accumulate to toxic level and contribute to:

    • Liver disease

    • DM

    • Heart damage / CAD

    • Joint damage


Electrolytes

Electrolytes

  • Na+ - blood plasma/extracellular

  • Cl- - blood plasma/extracellular

  • K++ - chief intracellular


Na and cl

Na+ and Cl-

  • Modulate fluid exchange

  • Regulate exchange of nutrients and wastes between cell and external medium


Na and k

Na+ and K++

  • Establish electrical gradient across cell membranes for:

  • Nerve impulses

  • Muscle contraction

  • Gland function


Na induced htn

Na+ induced HTN

  • 1/3 of individuals w/ HTN

  • Typical diet exceeds RDA by 10x

  • Not always the problem


Minerals exercise

Minerals & Exercise

  • Excessive loss 

  • Impair heat tolerance & performance 

  • Cramps

  • Exhaustion

  • Heat stroke


Minerals exercise1

Supplementation

Minerals & Exercise

Good diet 

Glass of OJ  replaces Ca, K, Mg lost in 3 L of perspiration


Water

Water

  • 40 – 60% of body mass

  • 65 – 75% of muscle

  • 50% of body fat


Water1

Water

  • 62% extracellular

  • 38% intracellular


Functions of water

Functions of Water

  • Transport and reactive medium

    - diffusion of gases

    - transportation of nutrients, gases, &wastes

  • Heat-stabilizing

  • Lubricates joints

  • Structure & form


Water regulation

Water Regulation


Water regulation in hot weather during exercise

Water Regulation in Hot Weather during Exercise


Water and exercise

Water and Exercise

  • 100% relative humidity

    - evaporation impossible

    - loss of cooling mechanism

  • No humidity

    - optimum cooling

    - excessive fluid loss   plasma volume  circulatory strain


Assessing fluid loss

Assessing Fluid Loss

  • Accurate body weight pre- and post-exercise

  • 1 lb. BW = 450 mL (15 oz.) dehydration


Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia

  • Water intoxication 20:

  • Loss of electrolytes (Na+)

  • Large ingestion of water


Hyponatremia1

Hyponatremia

  • Dilution of extracellular Na+

  • Headache, confusion, malaise, nausea, cramping, coma, pulmonary edema, death


Hyponatremia2

Hyponatremia

  • Usually during prolonged exercise

  • Do not consume > 1 L / hr.

  • Include some Na+

  • Include glucose  facilitate glucose-sodium transport


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