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Nutrition II. Nutrients. Macronutrients. Micronutrients. Carbohydrate. Vitamins. Fat. Minerals. Protein. H 2 O. Micronutrients and H 2 O. vitamins and minerals found in variety of foods balanced diet  no supplementation (Ca ++ ). Vitamins. Accessory nutrients (C,H,O)

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nutrients
Nutrients

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

Carbohydrate

Vitamins

Fat

Minerals

Protein

H2O

micronutrients and h 2 o
Micronutrients and H2O
  • vitamins and minerals
  • found in variety of foods
  • balanced diet  no supplementation (Ca++)
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Accessory nutrients (C,H,O)
  • Supplied thru diet (except D)
  • Manufactured during photosynthesis
types of vitamins
Types of Vitamins
  • Lipid soluble

- A, D, E, and K

  • Water soluble

- C

- B: B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid

lipid soluble
Lipid Soluble
  • Should not be consumed in excess
  • E.g. kidney damage 20 excess D
water soluble
Water Soluble
  • Generally not stored
  • Excess is voided
role of vitamins
Role of Vitamins
  • Links & regulators in energy releasing reactions
  • Control tissue synthesis
supplementation

Supplementation

Supplementation

Proper Diet Repeated Use

However?

supplementation1
Supplementation
  • Exceptions:

- C

- B – folic acid

- B1 and B6 (some athletes)

- B12 in vegetarians

antioxidant role
Antioxidant Role
  • Free radicals - highly chemically reactive molecules/fragments
  • Produced in body:

- O2-, H202, OH-

  • Produced in environment:

- smoke, pollutants, medications

antioxidant role1
Antioxidant Role
  •  free radicals   oxidative stress/cellular damage
  •  oxidation of LDL   atherosclerosis
  • Oxidataive stress  cell deterioration, advanced aging, CA, DM, CAD
antioxidant vitamins
Antioxidant Vitamins
  • A (& precursor -carotene), C , E
    • Protect plasma membrane
  • -carotene & C   CA
  • E & -carotene   CAD, blood clots
recent research
Recent Research
  •  roundworm life by 50%
  • synthetic drugs that mimic:
    • superoxide dismutase
    • catalase
  • persist longer than vitamins
vitamins and exercise
Vitamins and Exercise
  • B-complex – coenzymes for CHO, lipid, & protein catabolism  energy
  • Contribute to Hb synthesis (RBC)
megavitamins
Megavitamins
  • 10-1000x RDA
minerals
Minerals
  • Elements
  • Constituents of enzymes, hormones, vitamins
  • Combine w/ other chemicals (calcium phosphate in bone, heme blood)
  • Critical for certain processes (muscle contraction)
minerals1
Minerals
  • Naturally occurring
  • Supplementation unnecessary (except Ca, Fe)
  • Excess can be toxic
roles of minerals
Roles of Minerals

Structure (bones/teeth)

Function:

- heart rhythm

- muscle contraction

- neural conductivity

- acid-base balance

roles of minerals1
Roles of Minerals

Regulation

  • Cell metabolism (enzymes/hormones)
  • Balance catabolism/metabolism
    • electrolytes
calcium
Calcium
  • Osteoporosis
  • :

- less bone density to start

- reduced intake teenage years

-  activity

-  estrogen / menopause

  • Other factors: smoking, alcohol abuse
prevention
Prevention
  • Ca++ supplementation
  • Vitamin D availability
  • Estrogen therapy
  • W/b activities (consistent)
  • Avoid excessive meat, salt, coffee, alcohol
prevention1
Prevention
  • 20 amenorrhea   estrogen
phosporus
Phosporus
  • Provides rigidity to bones & teeth
  • Essential to ATP, CP
  • Combines w/ lipids  plasma membrane
  • Buffer acids produced 20 heavy exercise
magnesium
Magnesium

Involved in:

  • anabolism of serum glucose  liver/muscle glycogen
  • catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, AA
  • anabolism of lipids & proteins
  • nerve conduction and muscle action
slide26
Iron
  • Found in:

- hemoglobin

- myoglobin

- cytochromes

iron deficiency anemia
Iron-deficiency anemia
  •  hemoglobin conc.
  • Sluggishness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Reduced capacity for exercise
  • Common in 
iron deficiency anemia in females
Iron-deficiency anemia in Females
  • Pregnancy
  • Menstruation
  • Vegetarian diet

- animal Fe more readily absorbed

exercise induced anemia
Exercise-Induced Anemia?
  • Loss of iron thru:

- Perspiration

- Urine 20 RBC destruction &  temp.

- Spleen activity

- Mechanical RBC destruction

  • Probably minimal
supplementation2
Supplementation?
  • Hematological work-up
  • Accumulate to toxic level and contribute to:
    • Liver disease
    • DM
    • Heart damage / CAD
    • Joint damage
electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Na+ - blood plasma/extracellular
  • Cl- - blood plasma/extracellular
  • K++ - chief intracellular
na and cl
Na+ and Cl-
  • Modulate fluid exchange
  • Regulate exchange of nutrients and wastes between cell and external medium
na and k
Na+ and K++
  • Establish electrical gradient across cell membranes for:
  • Nerve impulses
  • Muscle contraction
  • Gland function
na induced htn
Na+ induced HTN
  • 1/3 of individuals w/ HTN
  • Typical diet exceeds RDA by 10x
  • Not always the problem
minerals exercise
Minerals & Exercise
  • Excessive loss 
  • Impair heat tolerance & performance 
  • Cramps
  • Exhaustion
  • Heat stroke
minerals exercise1

Supplementation

Minerals & Exercise

Good diet 

Glass of OJ  replaces Ca, K, Mg lost in 3 L of perspiration

water
Water
  • 40 – 60% of body mass
  • 65 – 75% of muscle
  • 50% of body fat
water1
Water
  • 62% extracellular
  • 38% intracellular
functions of water
Functions of Water
  • Transport and reactive medium

- diffusion of gases

- transportation of nutrients, gases, & wastes

  • Heat-stabilizing
  • Lubricates joints
  • Structure & form
water and exercise
Water and Exercise
  • 100% relative humidity

- evaporation impossible

- loss of cooling mechanism

  • No humidity

- optimum cooling

- excessive fluid loss   plasma volume  circulatory strain

assessing fluid loss
Assessing Fluid Loss
  • Accurate body weight pre- and post-exercise
  • 1 lb. BW = 450 mL (15 oz.) dehydration
hyponatremia
Hyponatremia
  • Water intoxication 20:
  • Loss of electrolytes (Na+)
  • Large ingestion of water
hyponatremia1
Hyponatremia
  • Dilution of extracellular Na+
  • Headache, confusion, malaise, nausea, cramping, coma, pulmonary edema, death
hyponatremia2
Hyponatremia
  • Usually during prolonged exercise
  • Do not consume > 1 L / hr.
  • Include some Na+
  • Include glucose  facilitate glucose-sodium transport
ad