Basic Concept of. Human Culture. Akademi Bahasa Asing. Saint Mary. 2008. 1.Sleeping 3.F a cial expressions 4.Symbolic thinking (systems). I. Introduction: Nature or Culture?. 2. Memory. Nature or Culture?. 5.Singing. 6. Forecasting. 7. Social smiling. II. What is culture?.
Akademi Bahasa Asing
4.Symbolic thinking (systems)
I. Introduction: Nature or Culture?
7. Social smiling
Everything that is not biology (breathing, hearing, voice-box)
Everything humans invented and individual humans learn (speaking, language, gestures)
1.Culture (from the Latin“cultura” stemming from “colere”, meaning "to cultivate") generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
2. Edward Burnett Tylor (Camberwell, London: October 2, 1870 – January, 2, 1917)
Culture is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and many other capabilities and habits acquired by...[members] of society." (1871)
3.Clifford Geertz in his book The Interpretation of Cultures (1973) p. 89: Culture is "a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life"
Definition of Culture:4.Clyde Kluckhohn: a culture to be inclusive of every aspect of a human being's life.Therefore culture can be defined as follows:
1. "the total way of life of a people“
2."the social legacy the individual acquires from his group“
3."a way of thinking, feeling, and believing“
4."an abstraction from behavior“
5.a theory about the way in which a group of people in fact behave
6.a "storehouse of pooled learning“
7. "a set of standardized orientations to recurrent problems“
8. "learned behavior“
9. a mechanism for the normative regulation of behavior
10."a set of techniques for adjusting both to the external environment and to othermen“
11."a precipitate of history“
12. a human behavioral map.
5. Gary Ferraro(2004): “everything that people have, think, and do as members of a society.”
6. Culture is a system that enables individuals and groups to deal with each other and the outside world.
2. Culture is the basis for self-identity and community
3. Cultures are rooted in deep seated beliefs
B. Characteristics of culture
4. Culture is built on symbolic systems (language)
5. Cultures are dynamic, changing, adaptive.
6. Culture is a collective activity, local and global