Radio loud narrow line seyfert 1 galaxies
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From Atoms to AGN , Tel Aviv, Feb. 2006. Radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. Stefanie Komossa, MPE Garching in collab. with, W. Voges, S. Mathur , D. Xu, H.-M. Adorf, G. Lemson, S. Anderson, . W. Duschl.

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Radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

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Radio loud narrow line seyfert 1 galaxies

From Atoms to AGN, Tel Aviv, Feb. 2006

Radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

Stefanie Komossa, MPE Garching

in collab. with, W. Voges, S. Mathur, D. Xu, H.-M. Adorf, G. Lemson, S. Anderson, . W. Duschl

  • introduction & motivation:

    - radio-loud radio-quiet bimodality

    - NLS1 galaxies

  • GAVO search for radio-NLS1s

  • multi-l properties of radio-loud NLS1s

  • models

  • future follow-ups


Radio loud nls1s introduction rl rq bimodality

radio-loud NLS1sintroduction: RL-RQ bimodality

  • `RL-RQ´ dichotomy: quasars come in two flavors, radio-quiets and radio-louds with deficiency of sources at intermediate radio powers/indices [e.g., Kellermann et al. 89, Visnovsky et al. 92, Hooper et al. 95]

    recently debated: some samples don‘t[e.g., Cirasuolo & 03, White & 00],others do show the bimodality[e.g., Ivezic & 02, Sulentic & 03]

  • what makes an object radio loud ?

    [e.g., Blandford 00, Wilson & Colbert 95,

    Laor 00, Ye & Wang 05, Best & 05, Metcalf &

    Magliochetti 05]


Radio loud nls1s introduction rl rq bimodality1

radio-loud NLS1sintroduction: RL-RQ bimodality

  • RL-RQ dichotomy in

    radio index (R) histogram

    R = f5GHz / f4400A

    R5 > 10 (R1.4 > 19) : RL

    [Kellermann et al. 89]

  • RL-RQ distinction

    in `emission-line

    diagram´:

    [Sulentic et al. 03]

0 1 2 3


Radio loud nls1s introduction nls1 galaxies

radio-loud NLS1sintroduction: NLS1 galaxies

Hb

[OIII]

FeII

FeII

[e.g.,Osterbrock & Pogge 85]

  • defi: via optical spectral properties

  • models: what drives correlations between line/ conti properties of AGN ?

    - (high) accretion rate and/or

    - (low) BH mass

    - inclination - metallicity

    - winds/density effects - absorption

[e.g.,Boroson & Green 92, Pounds & 95, Wang & 96,

Boller et al. 96, Laor & 97, Czerny & 97, Marziani & 01, Boroson 02, Xu & 03, 06b, Kawaguchi 03, Wang & Netzer 03, Grupe 01, 04, Grupe & Mathur 04, Botte et al. 04, Collin & Kawaguchi 04, Bachev & 04, Gallo & 05, Tanaka & 05; Osterbrock & Pogge 95, Puchnare- wicz & 02, Bian & Zhao 04; Mathur 00, 01, Komossa & Mathur 01, Shemmer & Netzer 02, Nagao & al 02, Warner & 04, Fields & 04; Xu & 06a, Lawrence & 97, Wills & 00, Bachev & 04; Komossa & Meerschwein- chen 00, Done & 04... ]


Introduction nls1 galaxies open questions addressable with radio studies

introduction: NLS1 galaxiesopen questions, addressable with radio studies

  • orientation

  • mBH – s plane

  • jet-disk coupling ? indications thatGal. XRBs in soft/hi state and AGN close to LEdd are radio weak

  • ....

This is the first systematic study of radio-loud NLS1s

and their multi-l properties*. Only 3-4 RL NLQSOs known

previously: PKS0558-504, [Remillard & 86, Siebert & 99], RXJ0134-4258 [Grupe

& 00], SDSS0948+0022[Zhou & 03], SDSS1722+5654 [Komossa & 06],plus 1-2

cand.; and almost no prev. syst. radio studies of NLS1s [Ulvestad & 95,

Moran 00, Greene & 06]

*one study in parallel: [Whalen & 06, astro-ph]


Gavo search for radio loud nls1s

GAVO search for radio-loudNLS1s

  • cross-correlation of the Catalogue of quasars and AGN [Veron-Cetty et al. 2003]with radio and mB cats

    using the matcher developed within the German Astrophysical . Virtual Observatory, http://www.g-vo.org, [Adorf et al. 05]

  • catalogues: PKS (4.85 GHz)

    PMN, 87 GB (2.7 GHz)

    VQCNVSS, FIRST (1.4 GHz)

    SUMSS (0.8 GHz)

    WENSS (0.3 GHz)

    USNO-A,B SDSS spec.

    GSC2.2ROSAT, IRAS

radio

[Wright & Otrupcek 90, Griffith & 94, Gregory & Condon 90, Condon & 98, White & 97, Mauch & 03, de Bruyn & 98]

RL

opt

X, IR

mB

[Monet & 03]

[York & 00, Voges & 97]


Search for radio loud nls1s results

search for radio-loud NLS1s: results

might be partly, but not fully, due to NLS1 definition as FWHMHb < 2000 km/s, indep. of L

  • 128 NLQSOs in VQC

  • 90% within NVSS survey area,

  • among these, 7% are radio-loud

    only ~2% exceed R=100

    (for comp.: ~15% radio-louds among quasars)

  • most radio-loud NLQSOs are compact, steep spectrum sources, not variable


Radio loud nls1s optical spectroscopy

examples:

radio-loud NLS1s: optical spectroscopy

SBS1517+520

blazar ??

2nd-most RL

no strict NLS1

Hb - [OIII]

FWHMHb,dir= 960 – 2030 km/s, FeII/Hb =0.5 – 3.2, [OIII]/Hb = 0.05-3

SBS1517


Radio loud nls1s optical spectroscopy1

radio-loud NLS1s: optical spectroscopy

RXJ23149+2243:extreme ´blue wingler´ in [OIII]

Hb

[OIII]

FWHM[OIII],wing = 1550 km/s,

v[OIII],wing = 1250 km/s


Radio loud nls1s x ray variability spectroscopy

radio-loud NLS1s:X-ray variability & spectroscopy

examples:

PKS0558-504, highly var.

Gx = -2 ... -3.5

Lsx ~ 10 erg/s

X-ray data used for L/LEdd estimates

44 - 46

SDSS1722+5654, const.


Radio loud nls1s results

radio-loud NLS1s: results

  • radio-loudness: radio indices


Radio loud nls1s results1

radio-loud NLS1s: results

  • radio indices:


Radio loud nls1s results2

radio-loud NLS1s: results

  • FeII-[OIII]-FWHMHb correlations:

    - radio-louds cover whole FeII-[OIII] range of NLS1s,

    - extend known radio-loud objects to those with small FWHMHb

[Marziani & 01]


Radio loud nls1s results3

radio-loud NLS1s: results

  • black hole masses*: -unusually low, given the radio- . loudness of the galaxies, but at upper end of NLS1s; - in a prev. rarely populated regime of the `Laor diagram´

*estimated from Ll(5100A) and FWHMHb[Kaspi & 05]


Radio loud nls1s models

radio-loud NLS1s: models

  • starburst contribution?

    - radio powersP are all in RLregime

    - IRAS – radiocorr.: P factor 10-120 above expected starburst contrib.

    - ionisation para.,SDSS1722+56:

    log U ~ -2.4 (typ. for Sy)

  • EUV excess:

    NeIII/NeV is good indicator of continuum shape, once U is known


Radio loud nls1s models to explain lower frequency of rls among nls1s

radio-loud NLS1s: models to explain lower frequency of RLs among NLS1s

Why are RL NLAGN more rare than RL BLAGN, and is the mechanism for RLness the same in NLAGN and BLAGN ?

  • relativistic beaming ?  pole-on view

    - most are steep spectrum sources, with radio spectral indices ar< -0.5; beaming not expected

    - exceptions: SDSS0948+0022, RXJ16290+4007: ar=0.6, 0.4

    - SDSS0948+0022 var. in radio, PKS0558 highly var. in X

    - X-ray spectra of beamed sources typically much flatter

    S: beaming cannot be excluded, but no positive evidence for it, with 2-3 exceptions


Radio loud nls1s models to explain lower frequency of rls among nls1s1

radio-loud NLS1s: models to explain lower frequency of RLs among NLS1s

RL NLS1s: Eddington ratios: 10 Lx/LEdd = 0.2-6

  • accretion mode: in Gal. X-binaries in soft/high-state (&AGN), radio emi. quenched for high acc. rates [e.g., Maccarone &03, Greene & 06]. mechanism which suppresses radio- emi for high L/LEdd also responsible for low RL-fraction in NLS1s ?

  • spin:spin-jet coupling e.g. via Blandford-Znajek or Blandford-Payne mechanism.

  • Why, NLS1s on ave. less rapidly spinning BHs ?  BHs still growing ?? Then, few RL ones should be more evolved. Indeed, they are closer to MBH – s relation of AGN than other NLS1s [Mathur & Grupe 05]

-- more theoret. studies needed --


Radio loud nls1s follow up studies

radio-loud NLS1s: follow-up studies

  • larger samples, based on SDSS: low-L NLS1s; radio-loudness etc. in dependence of FWHM; interesting individual objects (jet sources ?)

  • optical spectroscopy: line-profiles, exti,  R, MBH

    make use of line ratios wih diagn. power

  • radio imaging: how compact are the sources ?

    at diff. n: spectral indices, steepness

    monitoring: variability, beaming ?

  • X-rays: spectra, absorption, variability

  • theory: jet-disk models, dep. on acc. rate


Summary

Summary

  • identification of RL NLS1s

  • radio: most sources are compact, of steep spectrum, and not variable; R of all det. sources covers > 4 orders of mag.

  • BH masses in prev. rarely populated regime of Laor diagr.

  • opt-X prop. similar to RQ NLS1, radio properties extend the range of RLness to small FWHMHb

  • fraction of RL NLS1s (7%) < RL BLQSO

  • mech.: no SBs, no positive evidence for beaming in most sources, so far. Accretion mode & spin ?

  • future: larger samples;radio-obs: compactness of sources, spectral indices, variability; + multi-l

[Komossa et al. 06a, ApJ 639, in press;

06b, AJ, subm.]


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