Discovery Seminar 035158/UE 141 MMM – Spring 2008
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Discovery Seminar 035158/UE 141 MMM – Spring 2008 Solving Crimes using Referent Tracking Building a Realism-based Crime Ontology - Introduction - Feb 20, 2008. Werner CEUSTERS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences Ontology Research Group

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Discovery seminar 035158

Discovery Seminar 035158/UE 141 MMM – Spring 2008Solving Crimes using Referent Tracking Building a Realism-based Crime Ontology- Introduction -Feb 20, 2008

Werner CEUSTERS

Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences

Ontology Research Group

University at Buffalo, NY, USA


What is an ontology

What is (an) ontology ?

  • ‘Ontology’: the study of being as a science

  • ‘An ontology’ is a representation of some pre-existing domain of realitywhich

    • (1) reflects the properties of the objects within its domain in such a waythat there obtains a systematic correlation between realityand the representation itself,

    • (2) is intelligible to a domain expert

    • (3) is formalized in a way that allows it to support automatic information processing

  • ‘ontological’ (as adjective):

    • Within an ontology.

    • Derived by applying the methodology of ontology

    • ...


Three levels of reality

Three levels of reality

  • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof;

  • Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world;

  • To make these representations publicly accessible in some enduring fashion, they create representational artifacts that are fixed in some medium.

Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA


Three levels of reality1

Three levels of reality

  • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof;

Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA


Reality exist before any observation

R

Reality exist before any observation


Reality exist before any observation1

R

And also most structures in reality are there in advance.

Reality exist before any observation


Three levels of reality2

Three levels of reality

  • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof;

  • Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world;

Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA


The ontology author acknowledges the existence of some portion of reality por

The ontology author acknowledges the existence of some Portion Of Reality (POR)

B

R


Discovery seminar 035158

B

Some portions of reality

escape his attention.

R


Three levels of reality3

Three levels of reality

  • The world exists ‘as it is’ prior to a cognitive agent’s perception thereof;

  • Cognitive agents build up ‘in their minds’ cognitive representations of the world;

  • To make these representations publicly accessible in some enduring fashion, they create representational artifacts that are fixed in some medium.

Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA


He represents only what he considers relevant

He represents only what he considers relevant

B

RU1B1

  • Both RU1B1 and RU1O1 are representational units referring to #1;

  • RU1O1 is NOT a representation of RU1B1;

  • RU1O1 is created through concretization of RU1B1 in some medium.

RU1O1

O

#1

R


Discovery seminar 035158

We should not be in the business of

“concept representation”

Thus ...

  • These concretizations are NOT supposed to be the representations of these cognitive representations;


But beware

But beware !

  • These concretizations are NOT supposed to be the representations of these cognitive representations;

  • They are representations of the corresponding parts of reality

    • They are like the images taken by means of a high quality camera;


They are not or should not be like the paintings of salvador dali

They are not(or should not be) like the paintings of Salvador Dali

Non-canonical (although nice looking) anatomy


Some characteristics of representational units

Some characteristics of representational units

  • each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding;


Some characteristics of representational units1

Some characteristics of representational units

  • each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding;

  • several units may correspond to the same POR by presenting different though still veridical views or perspectives;


Some characteristics of representational units2

Some characteristics of representational units

  • each unit is assumed by the creators of the representation to be veridical, i.e. to conform to some relevant POR as conceived on the best current scientific understanding;

  • several units may correspond to the same POR by presenting different though still veridical views or perspectives;

  • what is to be represented by the units in a representation depends on the purposes which the representation is designed to serve.


Some characteristics of an optimal ontology

Some characteristics of an optimal ontology

  • Each representational unit in such an ontology would designate

    • (1) a single portion of reality (POR), which is

    • (2) relevant to the purposes of the ontology and such that

    • (3) the authors of the ontology intended to use this unit to designate this POR, and

    • (4) there would be no PORs objectively relevant to these purposes that are not referred to in the ontology.


Remember what is an ontology

Remember … what is an ontology ?

  • ‘An ontology’ is a representation of some pre-existing domain of realitywhich

    • (1) reflects the properties of the objects within its domain in such a waythat there obtains a systematic correlation between realityand the representation itself,

    • (2) is intelligible to a domain expert

    • (3) is formalized in a way that allows it to support automatic information processing


A realist view of the world

A realist view of the world

  • The world consists of

    • entities that are

      • Either particulars or universals;

      • Either occurrents or continuants;

      • Either dependent or independent; and,

    • relationships between these entities of the form

      • <particular , universal>e.g. is-instance-of,

      • <particular , particular>e.g. is-member-of

      • <universal , universal>e.g. isa (is-subtype-of)

Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceusters W. Towards a Reference Terminology for Ontology Research and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA


Continuants versus occurrents

Continuants versus Occurrents

  • Continuants (aka endurants)

    • have continuous existence in time

    • preserve their identity through change

    • exist in toto whenever they exist at all

  • Occurrents (aka processes)

    • have temporal parts

    • unfold themselves in successive phases

    • exist only in their phases


You are a continuant

You are a continuant

  • Your life is an occurrent

  • You are 3-dimensional

  • Your life is 4-dimensional


Dependent entities

Dependent entities

require independent continuants as their bearers

There is no run without a runner

There is no grin without a cat


Dependent vs independent continuants

Dependent vs. independent continuants

  • Independent continuants (persons, knifes, buildings)

  • Dependent continuants

    • qualities : sharp, red

    • shapes : round, square

    • roles: judge

    • propensities: breakable

    • functions: to make noise


All occurrents are dependent entities

All occurrents are dependent entities

  • They are dependent on those independent continuants which are their participants (agents, patients, media ...)

    • Stabbing

    • Punching

    • Running


Top level ontology

Top-Level Ontology

Continuant

Occurrent

(always dependent

on one or more

independent

continuants)

Independent

Continuant

Dependent

Continuant

Role

Function

Propensity


Words collected in previous assignment

Words collected in previous assignment

adjournment during the Trial or Hearing

foul play

perpetrator

guilty

lawbreaker

prisoner

criminal

witness

intriguing

mobster

acquitted

culprit

alleged

victim

suspect

convict

detainee

predator

inculpate

charge

inmate

weapon

evidence

robber

wrongdoer

verdict

felon

appeal

arraigned

accused

investigation

brief

delinquent

trial

admissible

murderer

subhuman

offender

defendant

sentencing

jury

alleged offender

judge

incrimate

arrest

interrogation

lawyer

forensic evidence


Each word came with several definitions e g suspect

Each word came with several definitions, e.g. ‘suspect’

  • to doubt or mistrust.

  • to believe to be the case or to be likely or probable; surmise.

  • one who is suspected of something.

  • one who is suspected of having committed a crime.

  • someone who is under suspicion

  • to think (a person etc) guilty

  • to believe to be guilty, false, counterfeit, undesirable, defective, bad.

  • to have doubts about; distrust

  • person being accused of a crime, before conviction or trial

  • to have an idea or impression of existence or idea without certain proof.


Assignment

Assignment

  • The last 7 slides of this presentation contain the words and definitions given by the students.

  • Deliver to me in powerpoint by March 7 at the latest:

    • For each entity defined by a ‘word – definition’ combination, indicate to what ‘yellow’ category on the ‘top level ontology’ slide they belong

      • ! Sometimes definitions need to be split also

      • ! Sometimes definitions which are phrased differently define the same entity. In this case: indicate which ones.

    • Make a list of the relevant words which are used in a definition but are not on the original list (of slide 27) or for which an applicable definition is not provided

    • For the new words on the former list: give a definition and proceed with the combination as in a) here above.

  • You may collaborate: everything must be covered by the totality of your contributions but not necessarily by each individual contribution  SOLVING CRIMES IS TEAMWORK!


Example

Example

  • ‘suspect’

    • person being accused of a crime, before conviction or trial  entity = suspect-1

    • to think (a person etc) guilty  entity = suspect-2

  • Step a)

    • Suspect-1: independent continuant

    • Suspect-2: occurrent

  • Step b): missing words

    • From suspect-1: Person, crime, conviction, to accuse

    • From suspect-2: to think


Response 2

Response (2)

Suspectto doubt or mistrust.

to believe to be the case or to be likely or probable; surmise.

Victima living creature sacrificed in religious rites.

a person who suffers from a destructive or injurious action or agency

Interrogationto ask questions formally.

to rule over.

Investigationthe act or process of investigating or the condition of being investigated.

a searching inquiry for ascertaining facts; detailed or careful examination.

Evidencesomething that makes plain or clear; an indication or sign.

data presented to a court or jury in proof of the facts in issue and which may include the testimony of

witnesses, records, documents, or objects.

Foulplayunfair conduct in a game.

any treacherous or unfair dealing, esp. involving murder.

Triala person or thing that is a source of annoyance or irritation.

the act or process of trying, testing, or putting to the proof.

Jurya group of persons chosen to adjudge prizes, awards, etc., as in a competition.

a group of persons sworn to render a verdict or true answer on a question or questions officially submitted to them.

judge an administrative head of Israel in the period between the death of Joshua and the accession to the throne by Saul.

a public officer authorized to hear and decide cases in a court of law; a magistrate charged with the administration of justice.

Lawyeran interpreter of the Mosaic Law.

a person whose profession is to represent clients in a court of law or to advise or act for clients in other legal matters.

Witnessa person or thing that affords evidence.

to see, hear, or know by personal presence and perception: to witness an accident.

Weaponto supply or equip with a weapon or weapons.

anything used against an opponent, adversary, or victim

Dictionary.com


Response 3

Response (3)

Suspect One who is suspected of something.

One who is suspected of having committed a crime.

Felon a wicked person.

Someone who has committed a felony.

Convicta person serving a prison sentence.

A person proved or declared guilty of an offense.

Accuseda person or persons charged in a court of law with a crime, offense.

A defendant in a criminal proceeding

Defendanta person, company, etc., against whom a claim or charge is brought in a court.

A person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person

being sued or accused.

Prisonera person who is confined in prison or kept in custody, esp. as the result of legal process.

A person or thing that is deprived of liberty or kept in restraint.

Inmatea person who dwells with others in the same house.

A person who is confined in a prison, hospital, etc.

Murderera person who commits murder.

A criminal who commits homicide.

Criminala person guilty or convicted of a crime.

One that has committed or been legally convicted of a crime.

Offendera person who transgresses moral or civil law.

A person who offends, especially against the law

No source given


Response 5

Response (5)

Accusedthe person charged with committing the crime.

AcquittedWhen the magistrate, judge or jury find that a person is not guilty of the crime.

Adjournment during the Trial or HearingA break for morning tea or lunch or for ‘legal argument’ (see below)

It can also mean when a trial is put off until another day.

AdmissibleUsed to describe evidence that is allowed to be given in court.

Arrestthe procedure where a person is taken into police custody to be charged with a criminal offence

or to be brought before a court and must remain in police custody until they

receive bail or until a court deals with their charges.

Alleged offenderuntil a person is proved to be guilty of a crime; the person is an alleged offender.

AppealTo take a case to a higher court in order to challenge a decision. The person who appeals is the

appellant.

Briefthe evidence in written form, including the charge(s), witness statements, photographs etc. that

the prosecution intends to use to prove the case.

Chargethe allegation that a person has committed a specific crime.

Forensic EvidenceEvidence found where the crime happened, such as fingerprints, results of blood tests, DNA etc

SentencingA range of penalties can be given during sentencing of a convicted offender including

imprisonment, community service orders, good behavior bonds and fines.

VerdictThe decision of a jury in a criminal trial.

Victimthe person against whom a crime has been committed

The Courtwise Dictionary

http://www.courtwise.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/victimsservices/ll_courtwise.nsf/pages/courtwise_dictionary#h


Response 7

Response (7)

Predatora company that tries to take over another;

a rapist, exploitive person or group;

an animal that naturally preys on another.

Criminal a person who has committed a crime.

Intriguingto arose curiosity or interest

Suspectto have an idea or impression of existence or idea without

certain proof.

Subhumannot worthy of human being, debased or depraved.

Defendantindividual company or institution accused in the court of law.

Bardsely, Marilyn, and Steve Huff. "Taylor Behl Murder Case." TruTV Crime Library. 2 Feb. 2008 <http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/taylor_behl/taylor_behl_jump_page.html>.


Response 9

Response (9)

Culpritperson who committed a crime, not

necessarily convicted

Criminalname given to a person after they have been convicted

or committed a crime

Accusedperson accused of a crime before they are convicted

Delinquentperson accused of a crime or criminal behavior

Convictname of a person after conviction

Suspectperson being accused of a crime, before conviction or

trial

Offenderperson accused, before and after trial or conviction


Response 10

Response (10)

Suspectsomeone who is under suspicion

to think (a person etc) guilty

Accuseda person or persons charged in a court of law with a crime, offense

To make a charge of wrongdoing against another

Perpetratorto commit

To be responsible for; commit

Detaineea person held in custody

A person held in custody or confinement

Lawbreakera person who breaks or violates the law

someone who violates the law

DelinquentA person who neglects or fails to do what law or duty requires

a young offender

Wrongdoera person who does wrong, esp. a sinner or transgressor

One who does wrong, especially morally or ethically

ArraignedTo call (an accused person) before a court to answer the charge made against him or her by indictment, information, or complaint.

To call to account; accuse

Culprita person or other agent guilty of or responsible for an offense or fault

One charged with an offense or crime

DefendantLaw. a person, company, etc., against whom a claim or charge is brought in a court

The party against which an action is brought

OffenderOne that offends, especially one that breaks a public law

a person who transgresses moral or civil law

GuiltyResponsible for or chargeable with a reprehensible act; deserving of blame; culpable

Adjudged to have committed a crime

Convicta person proved or declared guilty of an offense

a person serving a prison sentence

Prisonera person who is confined in prison or kept in custody, esp. as the result of legal process.

anyone who has been captured and is held against his will as a criminal

Felona person who has committed a felony

someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

Criminala person guilty or convicted of a crime

Guilty of crime

Lexico Publishing Group. 2008. Dictionary.com. January 21 2008.

http://dictionary.reference.com/


Response ja

Response (ja)

ALLEGEDdeclared or stated to be as described; asserted.

declared but not proved

ACCUSEDto charge with the fault, offense, or crime.

a person or persons charged in a court of law with a crime, offense

CRIMINALof the nature of or involving crime.

guilty of crime.

CULPRITa person or other agent guilty of or responsible for an offense or fault.

a person arraigned for an offense.

DEFENDANT a person, company, etc., against whom a claim or charge is brought in a court .

The party against which an action is brought against.

DELINQUENT failing in or neglectful of a duty or obligation; guilty of a misdeed or offense.

Failing to do what law or duty requires.

FELONa person who has committed a felony.

an evil person.

INCRIMATEto accuse of or present proof of a crime or fault.

to involve in an accusation; cause to be or appear to be guilty.

INCULPATEto charge with fault; blame; accuse.

to involve in a charge; incriminate.

LAWBREAKEROne who does not comply with the law.

MOBSTERA member of a criminal gang or crime syndicate.

a criminal who is a member of a group of other criminals.

ROBBERTo take property from (a person) illegally by using or threatening to use violence or force.

To take valuable or desired articles unlawfully

SUSPECTto believe to be guilty, false, counterfeit, undesirable, defective, bad.

To have doubts about; distrust.

HTTP://dictionary. reference. com


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