What s next cold fusion super low cost power generators vying for mainstream spot light
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 68

Cold fusion, Tesla, Scalar wave, Torsion field, "Free energy", "Over-unity"... PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Quietly Started New Paradigm Shift by Ultra efficient Cleantech with Disruptive Scientific & Economical impact

Download Presentation

Cold fusion, Tesla, Scalar wave, Torsion field, "Free energy...

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


What s next cold fusion super low cost power generators vying for mainstream spot light

PART 1 OF 5

What's Next "Cold Fusion”?.. Super Low Cost Power Generators Vying for Mainstream Spot Light

  • Torsion field, scalar wave, tesla… fundamental Paradigm Shift by Ultra efficient Cleantech with

  • Disruptive Scientific & Economical impact

  • Ben Rusuisiak

  • New nature paradigm TECH analysis

  • VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA, Updated Sep25, 2016 www.linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm


Cold fusion tesla scalar wave torsion field free energy over unity really all pseudo science the coming par

ABSTRACT: LENR-Cold Fusion effect itself has been virtually accepted by mainstream science, & currently it is in gradual spread to industrial, “fringe”, & non-western media: Energy produced with basically free “fuel” + equipment & operation cost. Although unadmitted by creative interpretations, thermodynamic over-unity or "excess" Persistent Current is observed & discussed for quantum level nano device as well as in relation to beyond Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency solar cell, and non-linear optic/laser/spintronics technology. As of Sep 2016, no mainstream endorsed LENR device exists, but 1MW industrial electricity generator "Ecat" has been sold under pre-conditions. 、 Low cost resonance based major emission reducerswith 10%+ extra efficiency, solid state thermo Electric/thermo PhotoVoltaics heat-to-energy systems, & highly efficient Waste-To-Fuel/Energy systems with Catalytic, SuperCritical water, Cold or Steam Plasma mechanics are starting to make into mainstream quietly in last few yrs.These types of changes indicate coming first full science review of ridiculed yet recurring inventors' hyper energy efficiency claims & commercialized small installations: e.g. 1-Extracting ambient-radiant energy as electricity, 2-Harvesting reverse voltage power without using force to cancel it(Back EMF), 3-Resonance catalyzed HHO/Oxy-hydrogen gas, also as mileage booster, 4-Electromagnetic or cold plasma pulse/vortex creation in confined water/inert gas, 5-Compressed air & COP>1 heat exchanger converted to mechanical power, 6-Catalyzed emulsion fuel with far beyond 50% H2O, 7-Hydrocarbon increased by std photocatalyzed O2 Nanobubble based fuel+water emulsion, when infused with CO2 in room temp/pressure. +variations, 8-Combining underwater air floating force & gravity, 9-Propellantless drive, 10-Hydrodynamic cavitation heater, 11-Betz limit excess hydro/wind turbine, 12-Pyromagnetic self running heat producing trash decomposer, etc. They often seem to run on mechanics & accompanied by side effects current official physics cannot explain(explained by Russian Torsion physics or pre-Heaviside Maxwell equations), low cost, & are convertible to superior new techs that can replace majority of propulsion, weather, medical, nuclear remediation, time dilation, psychology, & some key mining-industrial-farming processes -IF fully peer reviewed in science.、 At this paradigm changing stage, it might become also relevant to reference increasing documents/testimonies on above alternative physics based covert “open-end pseudo science” R&Ds by groups across Gov’t/Aerospace/Military/Intel agencies & private contractors, protected under national security, but to which above organizations’ executives often have no access i.e "unacknowledged" black project. This is totally isolated from “dead-end public consumption science” which is monitored & restricted by “science law”: e.g. At an advanced nation, even official data indicates, 1000+ inventions in Enviro-Energy-Propulsion-Medical field, many patented, are classified by secrecy law, & applied to allies. Despite all this, there are subtle but collectively clear signs that a majority of establishment is attempting to release unlimited “Open System” new paradigm technologies. Although both gas-oil-coal based industrial process & conventional alternative energy can remain by innovation, Mainstream commercialization of "0 emission type unlimited energy production" system's is inevitable & it risks social disruption, hence public participation is beneficial to discuss if, or at what rate & how all related tech/info to be officially released & endorsed.


Contents

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

Contents

p06 Looked over science legal high efficiency energy generators

p26 Solar & Wind power efficiency beyond official science law.

p43 Utilized but sometimes forgotten Biomass/Waste-to-Energy

P68 Biomass II, Largely ignored clean natural gas

p78 Ten categories of “over-unity” claims

p99 Commercialization attempts

p116 Law of Thermodynamics, “Dissident” scientists

p119 Scalar “wave”, Standing wave resonance, Torsion field..

p145 Terahertz & Far Infrared waves, “No light” Photo Catalysis, ORMUS..

p168 LENR/Cold Fusion update, Losers & Gainers by its success

p181 Reduced suppressions, energy paradigm smooth transition models

p191 Ramifications if inventor tech becomes mainstream

p223 Already in use? - Zeropoint Energy related "outrageous" claims

p258 Summary & Macro level recommendations

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Qualification of information

Qualification of information

This presentation primarily focuses on less known but latest science consensus forming technologies, while some of highest efficiency low cost techs contradict predominant view, especially of Wikipedia & Western media/NGOs. Hence attendants/readers are recommended to re-assess the data from own independent perspective

Regarding Controversial But Future Critical Technologies Discussed: ■ Term “Free energy” or “Over-unity” in this presentation is defined as seeming as if: -1 Drawing of more energy than exerted to generate -2 Continuous motion without energy input -3 Using free material generally not considered as fuel、 ■ Inventors-scientists-witnesses: their claims might involve higher likelihood of: -4 Fabrication, reliability exaggeration, or statistical error chance of observed effect -5 Significant quality gap between inventions, yet - -6 At least far above collective majority seem to repeatedly produces claimed effects

Currently more detailed reference list is being produced & will be published separately: The research is updated based on reviewing academic papers & journals, books, speeches, presentations, patents, lab/commercialized product testimonies/complaints, publications & public records of NGOs/media/research institutes/think tanks/military/space & gov't agencies/industry associations. Most effects quoted have accumulative-consistent evidence from unrelated era & source, but mechanics listed are hypothetical. Commercialized company/products are shown in Boldface Navy

THIS FILE IS PART 1 of 5SERIES: ENTIRE 5SERIES CAN BE VIEWED IN ONE FILE AThttp://www.slideshare.net/BenRusuisiak/free-energy-pseudo-science-new-nature-paradigm-on-energy-technology-34087356


Cold fusion tesla scalar wave torsion field free energy over unity really all pseudo science the coming par

  • blank slide

  • proceed to next page


Quest for free energy 1 claims started well before 1800s

quest for “free energy”: 1

CLAIMS STARTED well before 1800S

Main academia/media in mid-late 1800s forecasted commercialized free energyby early 1900s(Anthony+),

1- Free Ground Earth Battery regularly demonstrated self charging or inducing electricity capacity in low moisture, also power generation efficiently of two-points-voltage gap depends on location(Snow, Lockwood, Wilkins, Dieckmann, Strong, Bain, Edard, Haworth, Bear, Mellon,Hicks, Cerpaux, Garratt, Lamont +); invention rush for telegraph use, Along with strong claims of pre-dated telephony & wireless(Meucci, Stubblefield, Tesla+),2- Very low cost Vaccumized Air/Compressed Air engine/residential-industrial system, Trompe/Water Pumps also widely used in France etc(Rix, Mekarski, Hardie, Hoadley, C Hodges+)

Non earth battery free energy claims mixed:Data lack/fabrication, some can be valid, Involved mainstream scientists till early 1900s, yet no commercialization(also p100-103)

Science legal1&2disappeared from schooling/research while other types offree energy(p78-98)& repeated side effects in combination didn’t fit with “science package” then & now; gradually became irrelevant/pseudo science, which matched major business-financial lobby interest then

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Quest for free energy 2 towards modern era

quest for “free energy”: 2

towards Modern era

Same mechanics & side effects repeated by unrelated inventors, but linear progress often limited to recent Western mainstream academia(LENR, Cavitation), also Russia-Soviet had some development(Cavitation, Torsion, Ion heater, Ultrasonic, EM pulse) at official level.

Boiled down to 10 or so base mechanics(p78-98) with similar tendency: ➢ Often energy is ”triggered in” by rapid change in pressure-voltage-spin, plasma-magnetic field, cavitation,transmutation, or anomalous electron movement causing standing wave resonance, or antioxidant prone "field effect", linking to quantum coherence ➢ Manifest as anomalouscooling/heat, water hammer, coupled vibration, electrical breakdown, spike, surge, implosion, spontaneous corona discharge, ball lightning, vibration, vortex, similar to Electron Avalanche, Field Emission effect etc, thought of as short circuit ➢ Above is avoided by extra energy use or design change, seeming influence by geophysical/cosmo-physical elements, its side effects also contradict “science law”

i.e. not closed system?; some techs’(p78-90) efficiency fluctuates, by time-location, altitude, humidity, position direction etc;similar to ground-earth battery(p6), Rare cases emotion(O Carr, Jo Keely, Ra Ring, Th Ludwig, Dan Davidson,Vogel, Seelhofer+)

Occasional rift:1- Mainstream Western scientist vs2- Inventor, sidelined & Non-Western scientist(Russia, China+), Some mainstream scholars in West as exception(Austria, Italy+)

7

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy plant thermionic

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active“free energy” Plant/thermionic

FREE ENERGY TYPES; staying microscale, seems voluntarily limiting growth, withdrawn etc, but increasing actively commercialized exceptions(in navy), ■ Ground/Tree/plant Electricity harvester(Barbosa, Bryan, Karavas: Voltree, Helder: Plant-e+), ■ Properly grounded electricity conductive kite or rod extracts atmospheric electricity(Beccaria, G Richmann, Dalibard, De Romas+), easily replicated by amateurs, completely ignored by mainstream,、■Low temperature dif. Thermoelectric device: Widely known to generate power only from a few degrees difference(Lumen Eternal Flashlight: R Zhuravskiy) and easily made as garage project(A Makosinski+) & commercializable(Fujitsu, Yahama has test products, Citizen: Eco-Drive Thermo, Vodaphone: PowerPocket+), mass produceable by easy printing(AIST Japan+), can be woven into fabric(KAIST South Korea+)(Gr Moriarty+), industrial type(see p22 ■2),、■Ambient temperature run perpetual thermionic device:(GD Mahan, Hagelstein, Xinyong Fu[“magnetic demon”]+), higher performance than thermoelectric,、■ElectroMagnetic(EM) & sound wave electricity converter, Infrared Rectenna (Vanke, Briscoe, R Phillips, P Cutler+)(eg RCA Airpower, Already used for military type implants-sensors), Negative resistance/self entraining oscillators in high freq.; microwave, mm-wave etc: ElectroMagnetic wave of any frequency,

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 2 mems spin current

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 2 MEMS/Spin Current

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■Metamaterial based harvester(A Katko+), or MEMS(MicroElectroMeciahical Systems) can also convert any EM wave even Acoustic waves into electricity.

■αCantilever use Electret Electrostatic power harvester from minute oscillations (Boisseau+): Explainable even under mainstream idea as Oscillation of Brownian Ratchet/Ambient Thermal noise(hence impossible to harvest as ratchet rotation but oscillation exists[Feynman+]) is actually extracted as energy by rectification(Astumian+),■βTriboElectric NanoGenerator (TENG) harvests static from ambience, air flow or most minute contact-friction(Contact Electrification) at 20%+ efficiency, and can become significant power source along with conventional ElectroMagnetic Induction Generator(EMIG)(Youfan Hu+), above α & β can quickly become disruptive tech & getting very close to science illegal versions(p78,79), ■γNot fully established but carrying electrical current by Spin currentrelated methods, or by fractionally charged quasi-particle in quantum hall effect regime(as opposed to conventional charge current), seem to strongly imply overunity(Cyr Smith+): 1-Spin rectification at Larmor precession freq to control spin to produce DC current(YS Gui+), 2-Spin Battery: EMF (Electromotive force) of spin origin generated by static magnetic fieldin magnetic tunnel junction(S Maekawa+). Also see "Orgone" or "Orgonite" p126, p211-6. -->>cont:

9

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 3 auto micro current

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 3 auto micro current

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; SELF GENERATING MICROCURRENT ■iPermanent Tourmaline electrode electrolysis(Kubo effect), or ■ii Self generating micro-current minerals: Acos Terahertz Face Roller(Kun Sasaki+). As mesoscopic quantum phenomena, mainstream approved largely ignored Persistent Current observed in ring structure metals is up to 1-2 orders of magnitude larger(over-unity, in addition to perpetual current itself!)(KB Efetov+) than any wishful mainstream theory allows to be(Pri Mohanty+) & it demonstrates unknown time dependent fluctuations, deemed phase coupling/phase coherence to be critical factor(Mar Büttiker+). Instantly commercializable Macroscopic Persistent Current is almost entirely ignored but virtually science approved(C van der Wal, Hir Koizumi+), Violation of 2nd law?(Čápek, Da Sheehan+)、 ■iii also Zamboni Pile/Duluc Dry Pile(Battery) of certain set up(eg Oxford Electric Bell) or what is called Orgone also self-generates ElectroMotive Force or "self-flows" unlimited microcurrent when layers of different electric potential matter are pressed together wedged by dielectric material(electrically neutral/blocks electron flow, but allows electrostatic/polarize to develop dipole moment) in addition to chemical type reaction(limited), but perpetual current effect of "iii" is pseudoscientized even above i & ii effects are mainstream approved as "science legal", also similar "erroneous" over-unity claims were made by top physicists back when battery was invented(Volta+), -->>continued:

10

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 4 piezo electric

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 4 piezo electric

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■Efficient Piezoelectricity/Magneto-Ristriction: Mid-large power: 200kw+/km at busy hwy (Edery-Azulay/Innowattech), Polyvinylidene Fluoride based flexible Piezoelectric polymer woven fabric + photovoltaic coating(El Siores / FibrLec), Micropower device: MicroGen Systems+, 40times more efficient types than Western mainstream tech(KAIST: Keon Jae Lee+),、■Solar Chimney: Initial high cost, mainstream selectively quoting high LCOE, less electricity produced at night, many side benefits:Hyperion Energy,Enviromission+, Claims of more efficient, far less land use versions from pilot tests,■Salinity Gradient Solar Pond:Ormat+, suitable only with low cost land near salt water, tech & maintenance unstandardized,

■aWater-Oil emulsion fuel: Massive gap in fuel saving ability, also depends on type of boiler/engine used for: 1-25%(beyond this % is "science illegal":see p91-93),Cuts emission(PM 10-80%, NOx/SOx 10-50%), There is significance as one of few official mainstream instantly large scale useable partial "free energy tech" & commercialization exist world wide but remains low key in most nations: rarely referred even by cleantech media, minimum public funding for research in West.Groups of Western Mainstream (WM) business establishment promoted Emulsion Fuel under "excuse" of emission decrease(with no reference to fuel saving) in 2001-2003. Some are still offered(Lubrizol PuriNOx, Pirelli Gecam, Total Aquazole +), while others withdrew(Shell, BP, Chevron)

11


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 5 emulsion fuel

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 5 Emulsion Fuel

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■aWater-Oil emulsion fuel: A few companies serving world wide mainly for diesel but some also gasoline market:◆Europe(Eco Energy Holding AS, IncBio, E•Fuel SA, Toeps innovation+), ◆North America(Nonox, Fierce Fuel Systems, Next Alternative Inc+), ◆Japan(AIT Emulsion, NanoFuel co+),

◆Operations in Russia openly serve mainstream(Теплоэнергоремонт-Москва, Vodmazut Раптех, «Энергосберегающие технологии» «ЭСТ» - est-m.ru, МЕССКА - messka.ru+), ◆Middle East(4C Technologies+), ◆India(Creatnet Technology Pvt +), ◆South Korea is unique amongst Western ally to openly focus at government level(CoxOil kr, Green Hitech kr, Sampower kr+), ◆Other Asia(Solar Emulsi PT Pertamina, Singapore Emulsion Fuel+), ◆China is mainly served by own state company inhouse & Taiwanese companies(Comaxima Eco-Green Technology, Shine Bond 夏邦科技股份有限公司 +), Sector Base:Finally mainstream maritime industry open debut by European back up: Quadrise MSAR, in Asia: Monohakobi. Tech Variation:● Biofuel Emulsion(Gruppo Forini+), ● Works down to -30°C storage(SulNOx Fuel Fusions),

Equipment can be expensive &actual cost saving is often on par or less than far lower cost best performing magnetic flowing fuel treatment device, or Far InfraRed or Torsion Wave emitting mineral/matter/fluid wrapped around fuel line with 5-15% saving range(this is pseudoscientized at media level & superficial science level). -->>cont:

12

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 5 coal water slurry

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 5 Coal-Water Slurry

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ bCoal-Water Slurry(CWS):30-50% H2O(also note regular coal itself may contain high water content), Historically competed against oil seriously then "lost" along with plant alcohol fuels(US Prohibition), electric cars/hydrogen cars(all 1880s-1920s)/, Has by far the most significant short term potential as partial "free energy" tech. At boiler/gasification, thermal efficiency is coal+20% while fuel vol itself increases, storage & transferability made easier as liquid fuel, Lower emission(CO2, NOx, SOx) than Diesel fuel boiler, Can utilize unrecovered fine coal, or coal sludge/tailing, to turn environmental hazard into revenue fuel product.、 With its mainstream approved status, this almost forgotten low tech can exert enormous influence on shorter term energy market & geo-econo-political situation: largely dormant massive coal reserve evenly distributed world wide can made into diesel equivalent with 1/2-1/4 of cost to destroy “fossil fuel” supply shortage, liquid fuel market price, & existing crude oil refining/sorting system. Potential to replace entire diesel/heavy oil supply if modified special engine type(no nozzle wearing etc) is introduced(eg Micronised Refined Carbons(MRC) consuming DICE: Direct Injection Carbon Engine: US gov't backed program(also GE, GM etc participation) bet 1970s-2000s, recently Australia [CSIRO & many Australian coal companies])

US: Unsuccessful gov't participated movement to promote CWS to replace majority of higher priced imported oil in 1980s. Also clean coal burning IGCC(Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plants in US are using coal water slurry for boiler feeding (wet feed gasification to produce extra H2)(CB&I E-Gas, Texaco-GE) though almost never reported. Regular fuel use US CWS system installer:(ecoTECH Energy, AuraSource Inc+)

13

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 6 coal water slurry 2

  • (中国煤炭科工集团有限公司 - China Coal Technology & Engineering Group Corp, 山东能源集团 Shangdong Energy Group, 兖矿集团 Yuankuang Group - 水煤浆气化及煤化工国家工程研究中心 Slurry Gasification and Coal Chemical Engineering Research,

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 6 Coal-Water Slurry2

  • 浙江先创新能源技术开发有限公司 - Zjxianchuang, 北京国承瑞泰科技股份有限公司 GCPMC, jf NAIC+), High moisture content low end lignite slurry focus (榆林市科达煤炭化学研究院有限公司 - 榆林西部煤炭技术研究中心: Yulin Western Coal Technology Research Centre+), Taiwan(Neofuel tw).

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■ bCoal-Water Slurry(CWS): 、China: is tech leader & CWS is high profile tech nationwide led by state companies:

:

Russia & ex-soviet: Relatively active use(Амальтеа-Сервис vodougol, КОТЭС Cotes-Group+): Rather surprising US controlled Ukraine gov't has declared CWS as national energy priority with Chinese financial back up(Ukrheat+).、 Rest of world: CWS is overall even lower profile commercialization than emulsion fuel with very small # of players considering its science legal status(EET CWS, JGC, Kawasaki Heavy, Cynergi Holding SA+), Often small one-man show type operation or main business is other engineering(Advanced Coal Water Slurry Technologies, LeMar LLC, KEM-jp.com+).

Likely due to its very disruptive nature of abundant energy, scientifically approved status, CWS and Emulsion fuel are both carefully ignored by major Western environmental NGOs & mainstream entities.

14


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 7 bacteria generator

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 7 Bacteria generator

■Atmos clock+(C Drebbel+), use of self oscillating Torsion pendulum - Electro-mechanical transducer, ambience change, can combine with Foucalt pendulum element, ■Bacteria generator;Self-Charge Electrochemical Bio-capacitor (Pankratov+), Geobacter Microbial Fuel Cell(MFC)(Lovley) or its “overunity” electrolysis(Microbial Electrolysis Cell - MEC), Magnetotactic Bacteria based types etc., ■”Levitron”type, or ”Drinking Bird” generator,

■Hydrodynamic heater(TEKMASH,CT Systems+), (also see p87: G Ivanenko, Bespalko+), inconsistent “Self running” ability but happens often, valid mainstream science until it becomes overunity, ■Temperature based volume changing ultra sensitive Phase Change Material (PCM) driven Hydraulic Motor: SOLO-TREC(J Jones & Y Chao),

■Atomic/Nanogenerators, 24hr Infrared Solar(Hong Liu+), Particulates(Da Yurth+), Atomic Hydrogen Welding(Langmuir), Negative electrical resistance carbon fibre(De Chung+),

15

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active free energy 8 ionic move in water

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active “free energy” 8 ionic move in water

—>>continued: FREE ENERGY TYPES; ■aSmall water flow/Thermal Ionic movement in water harvested as electricity by Graphene/CarbonNanotube, Harvesting unlimited ionic thermal motion in water with asymmetric electrodes, or water in nanotube dragged to flow directionally by an external electric field to generate electromotive force(EMF) etc, many academic replications, sub different methods & possibly already military type use(Pe Král, S Gosh, Zihan Xu, Jun Yin, Seung Ho Lee, VI Petrik, P Dhiman, Hui Cao, Jianwei Liu, Koratkar+ at least since 2001),

b Water evaporation driven ElectroScavenging effect generator(Rub Borno+): this also relates to advanced non cloud seeding weather modification(for more details go to this link [four levels of..]and search "ElectroScavenging"), c Reverse Electrowetting power harvester(Instep Nanopower+) lot more efficient than piezoelectricity, can be disruptive if installed in road etc 、■ Some “free energy” actually costs more than existing system such as Blue Energy: Reversed electrodialysis, Pressure Retarded Osmosis(PRO)/Osmotic power, Hydrocratic ocean energy. But Capacitive(mix) energy extraction by Double Layer Expansion(CDLE)(Br Logan+), or by Donnan Potential(CDP), and Two stage PRO(Wei He+) might become super low cost in future

16

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech efficient engine

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: efficient engine

SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: often same treatment as ”free energy”(p78-98); stopped, stay microscale, suddenly retracted without explanation, some suspected internal only corporate use, Selective, under-exaggerated, outdated data for efficiency & cost performance in mainstream reporting contradicts manufacturer or academic/field-lab data(particularly in fast advancing tech like Solar/Wind/Ocean energy, etc, But again now emerging exceptions, ■Non UV H2Photolysis from water by Sn3O4(H Abe+), many other “artificial photosynthesis”s, ■50-200%+ increased efficiency engines(Myers, Ogle,Covey, Pogue, Castellini, Brandt, La Force, Hatton, Caggiano, Belland, Purushottam Pipaliya, Holland, Ch Brown, Fish+) by cam timing, spark plug, carburetor+), Specific angled screen in carburetor “accidentally” improved 50% mileage in 1960s(Ford), but model was soon “recalled to correct it back” to factory spec(Pantone+). Pneumatic engine(“science illegal”, p86-88): Peugeot 208 Hybrid Air(40km/litre, 94mpg), Tata & MDI-lu(Negre), both being shelved, Some Japanese cars mostly sold only in Japan(30km+/l), Volkswagen XL1(100km/l, 250 test units only) & discontinued Lupo(35km/l). In1920s mainstream predicted 80mpg norm with test cars 100mpg+(Byr Wine, Al Wallace, Bru McBurney+), Now available 95% efficient Shinsei Electrostatic Motor,

■ Super efficient Phase Change Material(PCM) for housing: to release or absorb heat at preset temperature: BioPCM,DuPont Energain, PCM injected wood: Enertia Home,

17

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech ammonia

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: Ammonia +

—>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:■Portable ammonia maker from H2O+air by compression cycle etc for engines(J Fleming), ■(N2H4)Hydrazine Fuel Cell: small, no precious metal, easy high power fuel(Daihatsu co), ■Aluminium Air Battery:1700km+ run range 100kg weight for electric cars(Phinergy), ■Thorium:US in 70s, Uranium took over, nuclear plant use, far less radiation, re-starting (India, Russia, China, US, Norway, Israel+), portable(Dratch+),

■Biofuel(Ethanol) from cellulose only(grass straw, tree branches, broken trees etc), Some produce with <1/2 cost of retail petrol of high fuel price nation(Kawasaki Heavy - within 2weeks of intending commercialization, key board members + CEO fired, and project shelved), others also announced tech success without commercialization intention since 2006(Taisei Kensetsu & Sapporo Beer, Honda+), as often happens in Japan, domestic only or 3rd world use intention seems allowed?(Kita-Akita city forestry coop,Sumitomo Forestry,Mitsui Zosen+): But stagnant commercialization situation started to change world wide since around 2014(see Biomass: p48, 50, 58)

18

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech geothermal

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: Geothermal+

—>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:■Coal based Gas/Oil/Direct power: Natural gas like CENfuel(Lloyd & Turner ) & Low Temp Coal Carbonization: LTC, Rexco(Karrick), Improved Bergius method, Micro active at Sasol+, Similar Lurgi process active in China(70+ plants),EM wave/Ultrasonic use(M Kawabata+), Low fume DCFC (Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, DEHPL+) mechanics avail since 1890s(W Jacques+), A few of IGCC (Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle, usually said to be more expensive than regular coal combustion, but high efficiency low cost data can be hidden by high startup cost etc): more on gasification see p45-46, p60-65

■Super high densityEnzymatic fuel cell(YH Percival Zhang)、 ■ Certain customized Geothermal heating: Heat Pump, Gradient Energy Harvesting etc: e.g. Discarded oil well-mine EGS(Sologen), Downhole heat exchanger use, 300m deep closed loop in high heat area useable even without heat pump cost etc, ■Cooling use OTEC(Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) near some water areas(Sea Water Air Conditioning)(Makai, Bluerise nl+), PCM used OTEC engine,

■Betavoltaics types: Tritium Light or Battery(P Brown+), Zinc sulfide or Radium Paint + Solar Cell, Optoelectric Nuclear Battery(Kurcharov Inst+), Radioisotope Generator(NASA+): mininuclear heat converted to electricity by thermoelectric device. ■Hydrothermal vent power extraction: large scale indicated by test success, ■Orimulsion: Water(30%) emulsified bitumen by Venezuelan state corp: broke "taboo" of not making bitumen emulsion for road pavement/sealant use

19

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech hydrogen

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: Hydrogen

—>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:■Exotic configurations:Limited to pilot success; • Advanced Compressed air energy storage by additional full recovery of both Heat compressed & Cold air released, • Pneumatic engine(Negre+, “illegal” version: p86-88), • Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch (Shimada+): “legal back EMF(electromotive force)”, • Water-carbon rod low powered electric arc gas: AquaFuel(H Eldridge, W Richardson, Rug Santilli),

■Exotic Hydrogen Production methods•Aluminium based metal alloy & water “Hydrogen fuel cell” lab results as all similar mechanics but mostly uncommercialized (also p95) eg:、iSlow oxidizing low cost focused alloy pellets(B Froats),iiRapid shock cooling-heating as catalyst to “crack” oxidized film of nano aluminium particles to reactivate(Dynamix-Muroran univ: Mas Watanabe+)+, 、 iiiUse of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst(not consumed) to prevent/delay aluminium oxidation (Hy-Energy: Erl Andersen)+,ivUndisclosed catalyst accelerates pitting of aluminum powder surface to prevent/delay passivation(AlumiFuel: Jas Anand+), vChloride ion use pitting to dissolve oxidized film(Hydergy India: AVK Reddy+),

20

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech hydrogen 2

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: Hydrogen 2

—>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: ■Exotic Hydrogen Production methods•Aluminium based metal alloy & water “Hydrogen fuel cell” eg:

viAluminium alloy with gallium/lithium etc which prevents/slows oxidized layer from fully covering aluminum(HydroAlumina: Ge Woodall, Chemalloy: Freedman+), viiCatalyticCarbon and aluminum in 80°C hot water + DC pulse(not electrolysis) to prevent almost all aluminium oxidation, this on-board generator makes 110L/minute of H2, low quality-dirty-sea water ok(Phillips Company 4T: Haw Phillips)

•Nanoparticle coated H2O electrolysis (Dopp+), •Ultrasonic H2 generation from water with non-oxidizing nanocrystal: ZnO fibers + BaTiO3 dendrites (Xiaochun Li), •Molecular Molybdenum Persulfide catalystH2 dissociation from water(JR long+), •84% efficiency pure water Electrolysis by Cathode 35Mpa high pressure Solid Polymer Electrolyte use, fluctuating power input workable like wind(Honda R&D),

21

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech heat

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: heat

—>> continued SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES:■ HEAT RECOVERY(as Electricity & Heat or Torque), also leads to emission reduction: part of mainstream focus in many, particularly Western nations, while almost ignored in others:

■1. Industrial Heat Recovery as ELECTRICITYby Kinetic Power Generators:Often as industrial CHP(Combined Heat & Power), or Combined Cycle at power generator: common installation in at least as new system in Chemical, Pulp & Paper, Wood, Petroleum Refining, Metal, Gas turbine/Nuclear power generation industries, use of Regular •1 Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)(Nooter/Eriksen, Alstom, GE etc; most large mainstream industrial conglomerate types offer), Specialists(2G Energy AG+) can improve more with rarely used Radial Flow Organic Rankine(Exergy SpA+), Kalina Cycle(Wasabi Global Geothermal), or further efficient its 2nd generation(Kalex Systems), CO2 SuperCritical Rankine, Trilateral Flash Cycle etc. Other Higher Rate & various scale applicable, •2Sterling engine type(Qnergy, Calnetix+), •3 Deluge Engine(Hageman) runs from 30°C diff,

■2. Industrial Heat Recovery as ELECTRICITYby Solid State Harvesting device, real available tech is more competitive against combustion engines or steam generators(J Fairbanks+) 1-10:

22

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech heat 2

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: heat 2

—>> cont ■2. Heat Recovery as ELECTRICITY:by Solid State device, 1-10: •1 Thermoelectric(same unit with temp gap between one end to the other) used in Soviets since 1940s, other nations for military/space application after 1960s, recent western mainstream use:Evident Thermo, [acquired 43% efficiency claimed GMZ tech], Carnot limit far exceeding MicroPower Global: ex-ENECO inc, Kucherov, Sevastyanenko, & Hagelstein: LENR researchers), 15% range(Je Snyder+), Komatsu/KELK’s 40% rating device with other Japanese peer likely slightly lower rating(Yamaha, Toshiba+), Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter(AMTEC)by C-TEC Nano Conversion at least 20% range etc. But as of 2016, 10%+ efficiency is possibly too disruptive to openly commercialize. And even regular 4-7% low efficiency (Melcor, TECTEG, Gentherm, Экоген Ecogen+ many others) products are space saving energy recovery, also with success track record. Thermo-responsive material and Osmotic power use Osmoblue(E Dahan+)works from 30°C temp difference,、

•2 Thermionic device(electron discharged from one electrode to the other as collector across vacuum when there is temp difference between them)(NASA use with 12% efficient in 1976), •3 Pyro-electric(Wenxi Guo et. al, 30% efficient by Sc Hunter/ORNL+) for time variant temp. gap of whole device, can be hybridized with piezoelectric generator(Ju-Hyuck Lee+), •4 90% efficientNirvana Thermoacoustic,

23

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech heat 3

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: heat 3

—>> cont ■2. Heat Recovery as ELECTRICITY:by Solid State device:•5 Heat pipe/pump: 30% extra energy saverFisonic Cavitation(Fisenko), •6 Micron-gap ThermoPhotoVoltaics: MTPV corp(DiMatteo+); generally ignored Near Field TPVs efficiency is upto a magnitude ahead of mainstream Far Field TPVs, •7 Jx Crystals TPV: Jx Crystals (Fraas) already measured 35% efficiency in 1989,

•8 Some high heat generating Fuel Cells can build in CHP to boost efficiency up to 90%+(heat included) level: ■PAFC(Phosphoric acid): Fuji Electric+, ■MCFC(Molten Carbonate): FuelCell Energy+, ■SOFC(Solid Oxide)Bloom Energy, Ene Farm/Kyocera - Osaka Gas - Toyota+, Ene Farm is for house based unit, its SOFC is at 52% electrical efficiency & produces lower cost power than retail price and can be sold to grid(Japan only), ■PEMFC(Proton Exchange Membrane): Ene Farm/Panasonic+, •9 Paintable heat recovery system can significantly benefit: Thermo Diode Coating(Ne Chernoff) or Spin Seebeck - Reverse Spin Hall Effect Paint(Ei Saito), Ultrasonic spray coating hetrojunction perovskite solar cell of 11% efficiency(AT Barrows+),

•10 Recovery increase if high temp electro-conductive waste heat exhaust or hot molten salt like flow is recovered first by MHD device

24

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech heat 4

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: heat 4

—>> continued. Heat Recovery as HEAT,Can be more than double efficiency with conventional tech use, surprisingly low use in some nations(Japan, France, Sweden+), but well established in others (Denmark, Finland, Russia, Netherlands, many ex-soviet allies+, often as centralized District Heating System, this set up allows all types of new heat recovery like Solar thermal, biomass to incorporate later on):

• General Combined Heat and Power(CHP, Cogeneration) system, Combined Heat & Power District Heating(CHPDH),Industrial CHP. • Further efficient Combined Cooling, Heat & Power(CCHP, Trigeneration, use of absorption chiller) when there is also cooling need,

■ 3. Heat Recovery as TORQUE, Nitinol engine; “Negative fatigue” temperature shapeshift metal with significant torque, US Navy link(Rid Banks, Sandoval, Ginell, McNichols, Hochstein, A Johnson+),

25

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar

■SOLAR: Rapid cost dropping(most competitive LCOE[Levelized Cost Of Electricity] is on par with std Wind: <6cents/KWh), as of 2016 certain solar electricity generation techs indicate lowest cost at LIMITED direct sun avail remote areas, individual house, high cost nations(eg Europe), high day time cost(eg Japan), or remote islands(eg Vanuatu, Hawaii). Fastest advancing major energy tech due to direct link with microelectronics, computer, semiconductor, spectroscopy, laser-optics, photonics, nanotech, space: many are linked to inventor “free energy”(p78,79)、 Open discussion & active pursuing of how to “violate” Shockley-Queisser limit(S-Q limit) & quantum efficiency COP>1, by theoretical/experimental level at mainstream academic with corporate/NGO/Gov’t sponsored. Although academic & socio-economical ramification is much bigger, this is a sharp contrasted attitude towards wind[Betz Limit], nuclear remediation(p202) or thermodynamics[2nd law, p113],

And this mainstream handling method of S-Q limit can be applied/simulated to the way of embracing inventor tech classic level over-unity electricity/energy extraction, as LENR-Cold Fusion gets officially accepted (p188-190), but this requires powerful Western interlocked mainstream sponsor back up(p104-106) which is fractured support at best currently(p181-190): excess S-Q is far less disruptive for business structure.

26

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 2

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 2

—>> cont ■SOLAR:But Direct Solar Heat(solar thermal) application is universally lower cost in most of the world up to high latitude Southern Scandinavia or Middle of Western Canada.

Following solar pages list up potential cost reduction ideas, also some techs are installable as lowest cost energy in some areas(*Note: due to photovoltaic’s high tech nature, production process, choice of material & how it is used affect costing much more than most other energy tech but this report doesn’t cover it)■1. Over S-Q limit Single Junction(SJ) Photovoltaic Solar Cell(SC): Significant number of SJ cell Shockley-Queisser Limit 33% exceeding efficiency at lab level experimental claims or strong indications/theoretical ideas discussed at conference without criticism/risking loss of job, articles pass mainstream journal editorials, and embraced by influential business/NGO/Gov’t lobbies & funders, Examples: iLight concentrating property Standing Nanowire (Krogstrup, Fontcuberta i Morral+), iiSolar Thermo-PhotoVoltaic(STPV, thermal upconversion: absorb heat and re-emit it as extra photon for capture; Boriskina+)(also see p24 •6,7) with specific geometric emitter-absorber combo(Rephaeli+), —>> continue

27

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 3

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 3

—>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell:iii Multiple Exciton Generation(MEG) by Quantum Dot Solar Cell:(Nozik, Oc Semonin, Ra Ellingson+):•Electron avalanche effect triggering(Br Parkinson, W Tisdale+), •Beyond thermodynamic efficiency limit Electron Carrier Multiplication?: Tuneable Quantum Dot(also does instant photon capture before disappears) to make photon disappear into vacuum, then reappear(p192■) with Electron/exciton multiplying effect: singlet fission effect, “7 excitons at cost of 1”/ Quantum efficiency COP=7(& indication on over-unity like actual electricity yield?), linked to Population Inversion - Self Powering Laser(VI Klimov, RD Schaller+ : US Gov’t at Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics [CASP]), Similar replication at NREL(H Brody), Outside US(BL Oksengendler+),

iv Plasmon types: •Surface Plasmon Solar Cell(use collective oscillation-resonance of electron) to trap light & increase absorption(Mi Burns+), •Plasmonic enhancement of Dye Sensitized SC: DSSC)(Co Andrei+), •Plasmonic nanostructure with upconverter-doped dielectric core(A Atre+),

v Infrared Capture: •24hr solar(Solterra Solar: Squires & Jabbour+), •Lead selenide nanocrystals to convert Infrared ray to visible photons for increased capture(Bardeen+), •Trap infrared photon to directly generate electricity(Fr Meseguer+), •Infrared capturing nano solar rectenna arrays made by atomic layer deposition(Br Willis), —>> continue

28

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 4

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 4

—>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell:vi Others: vi-a Down conversion(split 2x too high energy photons for band-gap into two lower energy photons to recover both), vi-b Hot Carrier Solar Cell(Le Bris+): keep low heat transfer from electron to phonon, vi-c Intermediate Band Solar Cell(Yo Okada+) with “photon ratchet” for extra light recovery,

vi-d •Single Junction Tandem Solar cell(Wl Walukiewicz+), •Perovskite oxides photo-ferroelectric material to function like Multi-Junction cell(An Rappe+), vi-e Piezo-phototronics(3way coupling: piezoelectric-semiconductor-photoexcitation effects) used for beyond thermodynamics limit?(Zhong Lin Wang+), vi-f If cost is low, high performance Solid State Device (p22-25) can replace photovoltaics to generate electricity up to 50 times more than photovoltaics per same area(Ka Matsubara+), vi-g 60-70% level efficiency Solar MHD lab success by superconducting type magnet(Concentrating Solar Power Utility Inc+)

vi-hLarger than unity” thermodynamic light efficiencies, when cooling involved (cold electricity link?[supercurrent “plus”]: p78,79): • Part of mainstream in Soviet-Russia since 1930s(SI Vavilov, YP Chukova, Yu Slyusarenko+); related to “over unity” anti-stokes excitation from lattice energy(Letokhov+), laser cooling+, • Converting lattice vibrations into infrared photons(Raj Ram+), • Solar cell illuminated by circularly polarized light generates charge/spin currents far more than spin polarization of carrier density(I Žutić, Ja Fabian+), —>> continue

29

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 5

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 5

—>> continued- ■1. Excess S-Q SJ Solar cell:vi-i Quantum efficiency COP >1, Singlet Exciton Fission cell(Congreve, Ma Böhm+), vi-j Infrared & Heat absorbing Iron oxide based Charge Ordering RFeO4 solar cell(Green Ferrite: Na Ikeda) in which electric dipole depends on electron correlations(not covalency, ie controllable by spin?), 24hr power generation, and COP>1 indication, seemed commercial ready but shelved? 、vii Heavier on theory: •Fill factor(FF, Available power at the maximum point) modelling shows higher limit for Organic Solar Cell(VA Trukhanov+), Nanostructured cell limit doesn’t apply(Yunlu Xu+), •Combine Upconversion & MEG(Shpaisman+), • Application of Photonic Bose-Einstein condensates(BEC) to concentrate, amplify, store light etc. •Some algae-bacteria’s photon-to-charge conversion ratio is close to 100%(FH Alharbi+), •But S-Q limit seems to come from non-empirical data(& new data after 1960s excluded) & based on 2nd law of thermo-dynamics without substantial data back up(Bolin Liao+), which has (ignored) contradictions (p116-117) and considered as more of conditional reference by many even in mainstream level, at least privately.

■2. Under S-Q limit? Photovoltaic Solar Cell: but still significant cost reduction methods, commercialized or prototype lowest cost products, some redundant:i 25% field efficiency SJ silicon cell(Solvoltaics+), ii Optical Rectification non-semiconductor cell(Ste Rand+),、

30

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 6

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 6

—>> continued- ■2. Under S-Q limit? Solar Cell: iiiConsolidated solar cell(M Baldo), iv Low cost thin film/organic solar cell by light trapping: classical limit 15x exceeding nanophotonic type: by resonance for full absorption (Shanhui Fan+), or by Fullerene C60(Sunpower C60)/Coherent Population Trapping(CPT), Electromagnetically Induced Transparency(EIT) link, v Titanium based spray DSSC solar cell is 10% efficiency but cost is <1/5 of others(Showa Titan, seems shelved)

viHolographic solar cell:(Solar Bankers, Bifacial added Prism solar cell[G Rosenberg]), vii Nanostructured solar cell: Increase surface area to trap more light, less recombination- Solar Brush by Bloo Solar, viii Low cost thin film/DSSC with High outside light low efficiency but low indoor light high efficiency(20%+): 3G Solar, ix Enhance light harvesting by trapping, quantum dot relation etc by use of Cavity QuantumElectrodynamics (Mi Calic+), x Would solar cell application of Circular Photogalvanic Effect(circularly polarized light) & Spin Galvanic Effect(spin polarization) have significant efficiency potential(eg at Gyroscopic Quantum well+)?

■3. Concentrated ThermoPhotoVoltaics, Cost uncompetitiveness challenge: But some might have significant low cost potential: eg Morgan Solar(J-P Morgan), SolarCube(Gr Watson), REhnu(Ro Angel), Other cost lowering elements eg: Micro-Optic Solar Concentrator(Ja Karp+), Stretched Lens Array-SLA light concentrator(M O’Neill)+ --Continue ->>

31

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 7

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 7

—>> continued-■3. Concentrated ThermoPhotoVoltaics:

For efficiency only: Mainstream ignored aerospace targetingBoeing-Spectrolab’s Multi Junction solar cellCDO-100-C3MJ/C4MJis average efficiency 38.5/40 % in 2009/10 for terrestrial market, and sells to civilian companies(OEM?),SolAero-Emcore was 37% in 2007, Hybrid concentrated PV & thermo-acoustic engine(Northrop Grumman), MicroLink’s specializeddual-junction solar cell works at 400°C, PhotoElectrowetting/Optofluidics sun tracker byTeledyne, etc.

Due to their space industry sales, there might be classified more robust products. Civilian market focused companies’ R&D lab efficiency is 45% level in 2016 (Spectrolab linked Amonix-Arzon Solar, Lattice-Matched solar cell by Solar Junction +),*What happens if Optical Vortex Soliton & Self-Focusing element is applied?

32

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 8

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 8

—>> continued■SOLAR: ■4. Non Std Concentrated Solar Power(CSP), i30%+ field efficiencyDish Stirling(parabolic), (CSPs drop performance as much as 85-90% at rain or cloudy weather),lowest cost available solarin sunny area: Rippaso Stirling Hybrid,Cleanergy,United Sun Systems -all linked to Sweden,Schlaich Bergermann & Partner -Germany, US Majors participated in 1980s-90s but withdrawn(McDonnell Douglas, Cummins), No water use, Much less land needs(2.5ha/mw) with Module based 10-50kw installation, <5cents/KWh range cost is on par with lowest cost by non mega hydro. ii Solid State Energy Harvesting device:or high efficiency combined cycle can lower cost than Stirling: eg•Photon enhanced thermionic emission(Melosh), •Others(p22-25)

■5. Standard CSP:can be currently <6-10cents/KWh, Molten Salt storage type can supply power almost 24hrs with significantly increased cost(Calcium & SuperCritical Fluid experimentally lower cost), Ongoing further cost reduction, eg:iSkyfuel’s Heliostats by low cost film instead of mirror, ii UltimateTrough collector byFlabeg Solar, etc,

33

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 9

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 9

—>> continued ■SOLAR:■6. Unique niche specific installation solar cell: low efficiency(5-10%) but attachable/wearable/textile Organic PhotoVoltaics(Samsung, Mitsubishi+) for convenience, by low cost material/manufacturing: from Hetrojunction, Dye Sensitized(DSSC) to Perovskite use, Thermoelectric/fibreoptic textile with 3-5% level(NASA+),

■7. Solar thermal/heat: Disruptively low cost, often forgotten, instantly applicable with 50%+ efficiency with existing tech use, For residential, commercial, industrial(Industrial Heat Process, at least 60% of electricity is used to generate) application as co-heat source: iSolar Air Heating, Very scalable, •Can be combined with Solar Thermal Collector: SolarWall(J Hollick)+, •Low tech dessert area heating and cooling by Trombe Wall(M Dabaieh+), ii Solar thermal by hot water collecting: Enerworks +, •Extensive District Heating system incorporation & heat storage in Denmark(Marstal, Brædsrup+), ->>cont

34

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 10

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 10

—>> continued ■7. Solar thermal/heat: iii Rare but most efficient(70%+) combined PV & Solar thermal unit type by hot water recovery while cooled temperature improves PV cell performance: eg Technique Solar(D Thoroughgood), Concentrated thermal at 80% efficiency(IBM), Similar concept with housing construction element added more energy produced than used home idea can be cost competitive depends on solar panel costing(Sonnenschiff-PlusEnergy-Heliotrope[R Disch], Övolution, “Sous-le-Soleil”, ArchiBlox+)

ivSolar Heat for Industrial Process(SHIP): suitable for low/mid temp needs, iv-aFood: Scheffler reflector etc use, pasteurizing, cooking(Tss-India+), iv-bVarious Industrial: washing desalinating, drying, cooling, bleaching(Megawatt Solutions,Clique Solar ARUN,Trivelli Energi+), higher efficiency Linear Fresnels used Chromasun Micro-Concentrator, iv-cUtility: Gas-steam turbine augmenting or reduce start up time, Integrated Solar Combined Cycle(ISCC): Yazd Solar Energy +, iv-d Solar Thermal EOR(Enhanced Oil Recovery): Novatec Solar, GlassPoint+,

35

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech solar 11

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: solar 11

—>> continued: ■7. Solar thermal/heat: Solar thermal is applicable to most industries except Metal-Smelting(high temp system must be custom made) types, Cost justifiable even when heat storage is needed, Different temp types: •Basic Standard Flat Plate Collector(<80°C), or Evacuated tube (<100°C), •Mid temp system: Parabolic Trough or Linear Fresnel Collector(<400°C), •CSP(<600-800°C), Up to 3500°C system exists but non commercial: Le Four Solaire d’Odeillo PROMES, produced H2 by non catalyst pure heat from water, Or Большая солнечная печь in Uzbekistan: lasting 45+yrs; Some CSP system might last much longer than std rating of 25yrs, also some Photovoltaic cell would last 50yrs+ with 25% less initial capacity: i.e. Cost of certain device can be much lower than publicly discussed

■8. Other fundamentally different mechanics type, Practically untouched by mainstream, but national labs/space agencies seem to involve, some indication of “over-unity” solar under right conditions: iMaglev Vertical Axis Mendocino Motor: V3Solar(C LaDue), Array of AC current producing multiple spinning solar cones with “mutual counter rotating amplifying effect”?, iiSolar Liquid Power(D Linman), iii Diffused light workable Superconducting paint(C Bolaños), similar 85% efficiency steam generating carbon foam(Ha Ghasemi)

36

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech wind

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: wind

—>> continued: SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER COST TYPES: ■WIND ENERGY, Wide range of under deployed different mechanics/tech available, extensively tested by labs & smaller scale models to back up claims, even mini turbines more efficient than larger conventional, but often much lower cost than all conventional energy tech, only in specific locality and not universally, but some are <4cents/KWh, Following listing includes many commercialization failures/bankruptcies due to being new: product quality issue & failing to capture “unconventional” wind effect in half of installed sites, sometimes highlighted as proof of non std wind tech invalidity in wind energy media or “industry expert” blogs,

Almost no participation by largest ranking wind power majors, Majority of following wind tech indicates science illegal performance of Betz limit(59% efficiency) exceeding up to 4 times(vortex, venturi coanda type effect funnels “extra wind”, also limit might not apply to nonHAWT[Horizontal Axis], etc), hence frequently called exaggeration/miscalibration, Often a-Fundamentally different mechanics from conventional wind tech, b-Works with higher & lower wind level, c-Quieter, d-Very space efficient, e-Reduced or no bird/bat accidents. Some are f-Specialized in small scale, g-Longer lasting and less maintenance, h-Simpler mechanics, i-Involved with aerospace industry (eg DAWT- Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine, Delta Wing, Use of mechanics of Sailing directly against wind or faster than wind speed+), indicated in Boldface Navy is actively being commercialized: following 1-17

37

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech wind 2

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: wind 2

—>> continued: ■Wind: •1Advanced VAWT(vertical axis wind turbine: Darrius & Savonius combo etc, material integrity improvement continued from past wind farm failures(Yih Ho Pao+): Turbina VAWT(Mi Tesic), Luethi Wind(M Luethi), Sambrabec Catavent - ERD qc(Obidniak),

•2Large VAWT types: Agile Power(Bahnmüller), Terra Moya(R Taylor), Mass Megawatts(Jo Ricker: Multi-Axis Turbo system & MMW augmenter), New Millenium Wind(Drew Thacker, high profile with contracts- suddenly retracted), Wind Harvest International(B Thomas), •3Maglev VAWT by Senzhen TYPMAR, Regenedyne (Choi & Jenkins), Mag-Wind(Rowan, later charged as fraud, typical event when inventor type free energy tech is commercialized p100-103),

•4”Unconventional rotation” type: Windpods (Attey), •5Turbine engine type: Stormblade Wind(Jovanovic), Hush Wind Turbine(Ar O’Connor), •6Different blades or bladeless: Saphon(Aouini), de Archimedes (Ruijtenbeek), SpiralAirFoil(Parker & Noonan),

38

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech wind 3

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: wind 3

—>> continued: ■Wind:•7Specific Shaped Fluid dynamic effects: i Tesla Turbine: Tesnic(Ho Nica), spins with same speed as wind, extremely strong with high wind, close to 100% efficient, ii Magnus effect Rotor ship(Flettner) by Enercon E-ship1, but Rotor type oscillation wind generators are only marginally lower cost than conventional, iiiDAWT: Airsynergy(J Smyth), iv Spiral magnus cylinder blades: Mecaro(Nob Murakami), needs electricity to initially activate generator, vVenturi rotor: Energy Ball Vindkraft,(van der Klippe), viConical Helicoid: Windstrument(Cl Clark), disruptively scalable, viiRectangular building roof edges: Anerdgy WindRail(Sv Koehler),viii Others: BERWIAN wind concentrator(In Rechenberg), “3D wind turbine”: Nheolis (Haddjeri, French govn’t backing), Warp ENECO(Weisbrich),

•8Airborne wind: majors(eg Google) participating: Altaeros(Glass), KiteGen (Ippolito), Ampyx(Koning & Ruiterkamp), e-kite(van den Brink), TwingTec(C Houle), Ocean freight “free wind” propulsion SkySails, •9Omni directional: Katru IMPLUX(Sureshan), •10Wind-solar hybrid(Skywolf/WindTamer: J Brock), Blue Energy(Melchior: structured & self cleaning solar surface),

•11Basic spiral convection & vortex effect, mostly by active engineers + mainstream academics + large corporate/Gov’t backing, Upright vortex or Along steep mountain contour pipe: Vortex Engine(Michaud), Tornado Wind Energy TWECS(Ja Yen), Windhamster(Jü Schatz), Microwave projection triggered tornado generator(Sl Tepic), Other research pre 1960s: (Cheng Ting Hsu, Nazare, Ma Haug, Be Dubo, Ma Menard+), After 1990s:(Stiig, Ma Tanner, Bubnov, Ra Menard, Ar Glezer, More common among Russian & Chinese academics+),

39

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech wind 4

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: wind 4

—>> continued: ■Wind, •12Downward vortex by water spray(P Carlson+), Sharav Sluices(Zaslavsky, Guetta, Israel Gov backed), side effect use for desalinating water, •13Horizontal, large version of vortex tubes(De Oliver), Vsquare Wind(Ro Freda, US army link), Sheerwind INVELOX(Allaei), •14Mini size vortex: Western Co Fotovoltaici(Gachechiladze & Cimini), • Convection Mill model(AR Bennett, A Holmes), can be interpreted as ambient permanent free energy

•15Boundary Layer, Coupled Vortex Effect(Paraschivoiu, Daibiri+), Only small improvement but universal wind turbine performance booster adopter: Leviathan Wind Energizer(D Farb), •16Oscillation based, no rotation, easily installed literally anywhere, highly scalable: Altenera BreezeBee(Mo Kaplan), Even more efficient Standing Wave causing Resonance freq. crossover type of: Self exciting vortex shedding Zephyr Energy Windbeam(Dy Thorp+), Aeroelastic flutter: Windbelt/Windcell(S Frayne), sold only under certain special conditions, some already copied: Wolt Wind Energy. If resonance creation is aimed (avoided by regular turbine for device integrity reason) it might further improve efficiency as seen in other techs. Also Piezo-Triboelectricity(p8■β ),

•17Portable & foldable wind generator: Natural Power Concepts(J Pitre, US military link), Micro Windmill(Sm Rao), Ventus Folding Wind(Kuckir), 15-100cm diameter scalable & space fillable interconnected light turbines generates useable power from 2m/sec: MotorWind(Gambarota)

40

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech hydro

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: hydro

■Hydro/Tidal/Wave, Some are much lower cost only in remote towns or private power generation, •1Fundamentally conventional turbine operated super low cost hydro: eg Hydro-Québec,Manitoba Hydro,Three Gorges Dam+,

•2Underwater tidal flow, Low head hydro, some regular hydro turbine, while majority is similar to vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine like: Benkatina(D Farb), Mako Turbine - SeaUrchin(M Urch), Beck Mickle Hydro allows full weight of water power capture with 70% range efficiency instead of regular premature turbine rotation (Gilmartin & Cattley), ORPC(Gorlov Turbine used), New Energy EnCurrent,Strom-Boje(F Mondl), Hydrovolts (Da Roth), Izumi si(V Markovic), Hydrocat, Larger scale: Verdant Power(D Corren), More efficient large scale Sundermann Turbine tilts power blades as rotate - vertical version of above Beck Hydro: Many of above are easy installation- no damming/digging, Often easy relocation, some show Betz law violation efficiency. Also large hydro dam equivalent in ocean: Large to mega scale tidal: Blue Energy Canada(Bar Davis, Mar Burger+).

Easily the most effective in ocean energy segment by MHD generator by wave move(Liquid Metal type) or tidal move both(Scientific Applications & Research Associates, aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy of Science+): this type can be easily demonstrated its low cost & high efficiency(Koslover, Rynne, M.F.M.A Majid, Yan Peng, Li Ran +), Desalination plant left over high salt content effluent flow salt water MHD(KSB Aktiengesellschaft+)

  • 中国科学院电工研究所-

  • 李然

41

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Science legal inactive newly active super low cost tech hydro 2

science-legal INACTIVE & newly active

“super low cost” tech: hydro 2

->>cont: ■Hydro/Tidal/Wave:

•3Use of both wave surging & webbing for power: Greenwave Energy, Use of highest & lowest point with in a set of wave scalable system: MotorWave(Gambarota): also can work as a floating connected "trompe"s to pump water to high land. No-moving -parts wave: Reverse MagnetoRestriction/Villari Effect use iMEC Oscilla Power,

•4Non Turbine, highly scalable, low speed workable: Vortex shedding oscillation VIVACE Vortex (Bernistas), Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle/Dielectric Elastomers electric generation on any moving water(Kornblush+), or by Nano Fibre (Huifang Xu+), Also Piezo-Triboelectricity(p8■β )

•5Liquid pipe flow electricity recovery:Lucid Energy(Schlabach+),•6Also completely different far more efficient mechanics system exists but pseudoscience treatment due to use of "non-existent" effect or over unity efficiency(p96): eg HHO OxyHydrogen gas use MHD power generation.

42

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass

new perspective -“lowest cost” energy from vast biomass

■Biomass: Heavily related to human habitat/cultural activities with enormous energy potential even without major technological paradigm change, and usually not perceived as such, but often becomes Lowest cost energy when apply different sets of energy criteria.

α-Even simply by use of conventional tech, •iApplying different cost structure as by-product(eg Fuel from cellulosic content of plant, Sugar Cane Bagasse, Wood chips etc. High energy required waste water treatment reduces energy needs 30%+, might even net energy, •iiMinimum human living condition by-product(Energy produced from Waste or Landfill Gas removal), •iiiRegional or Operational based: Sawmill residue burned with cost is now made into Pellets for income, •ivReevaluating existing criteria of what is energy(Peat, Gas Hydrate+):

β-Long researched tech with official breakthrough declared types, Some of well known energy industry disruptive techs are entering into mainstream approved commercialization during 2013-2015. This would also gradually reinforce idea of far more energy availability than demand for entire world if combined,

•vCellulosic ethanol - second generation biofuel, •viSub-SuperCritical Water/Hydrothermal Liquefaction/Hot Plasma Gasification of all organic waste, Cold plasma treatment of liquid waste/gas cleaning: to produce various liquid fuel, solid carbon, & gas.

43

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 2 forest residual

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -2, Forest residual

  • ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-->cont ■Biomass & others lowest cost energy in some situations: 、Biomass related technologies are categorized 1-4 as follows in this presentation, but there is a large degree of cross over:

•1 FOREST RESOURCE, •2 AGRICULTURAL, •3 SOLID/LIQUID MUNICIPAL-INDUSTRY-AGRI WASTE: to Gas/Methane, Gasoline, Diesel, Ethanol, Crude Oil, Compressed or as is fuel, Bio Coal, •4 OTHER BIOMASS: Seaweed/Algae/Peat: As is or processed、

•1 FOREST RELATED: Largest vol use in biomass, ✔1a Non-industrial private wood burning/firewood use, particularly in non developed nations is deemed very large but no precise figure agreements, many nations allow access for logging or growth debris by private individuals freely or by license, Very low efficiency heat use,

✔1b Industrial extra wood fibre recovery: There is extensive recovery of forest by thinning plantation as well as harvesting entire tree(including branches), and sometimes stump & root: Finland harvests more than 1 million m3/yr in recent years, some synergy with peat harvesting, increase minimum 10% of wood vol, much less extent but still done in Sweden, Baltics, UK. Also general above ground wood debris recovery from forest is lot higher in North West Europe than most other regions. Infra set up with first certain duration of "investment period" is needed.

44

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 3 wood gas large

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -3, Wood gas - large

-->cont: •1 FOREST RELATED:✔1c Wood Gasification & Power generation: Net energy gain compared to simple combustion, cost itself had been higher than conventional combustion in the past due to technical & uptime issue but situation is rapidly changing in last 2-3yrs. Some are CHP(Combined Heat & Power)/Cogeneration.、 ◆LARGE SIZE power plant application(~10-150MWh~) by overcoming tar, corrosion, plugging issue etc, predominantly North West European companies, due to the size primarily Fix Bed Updraft, or Entrainment, Circular or Bubbling Fluidized Bed(Foster Wheeler - VTT, Vølund, Nexterra, Repotec GmbH, Valmet, Andritz Carbona, Outotec, Metso+), Likely the largest installer in the near future with increasing success (KaidiHI.com阳光凯迪新能源集团有限公司.): high profile company in China with nation's President visitation in 2011 & 13, while its presence & success is little known in west.

◆MID SIZE(~0.5-20MWh~): some are very compact size. ●Scandinavia(Meva Energy, Weiss A/S, Cortus Energy WoodRoll, Gasek+), ●DACH: German Speaking Countries(Christof Industries GmbH+), heat pipe use for 35% electrical efficiency under 1MW(agnion Entrade), Enhanced hydrogen production by superheated steam injection(Güssing Renewable Energy GmbH+), ●Other Europe (Xylowatt NOTAR, Greene Waste to Energy, Torftech, Biomass Technology Group BV+), ●North America(Chiptec, PRM Energy Systems, KMW Energy, Thermogenics Gasification +), ●Asia(Chongqing Welluck Trading, Ankur Scientific+), -->>cont:

45

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 4 wood gas small

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -4, Wood gas - small

-->cont: •1 FOREST: ✔1c Wood Gasification & Power generation: ◆MID SIZE:、Full pyrolysis(starved oxygen gasification) mechanics type that produces biochar byproduct(Phoenix Energy, Splainex+): Fuel/gas extraction wood Pyrolysis is often smaller scales or mini DIY types, and usually not competitive with other wood gasification methods. But it is often competitive for plastic-tire processing to produce liquid fuels. Also superior method for non-fuel biochar as main production.

◆SMALLER SIZE(~100-500KWh~) & often CHP, many are containerized system module base for scalability. Some devices start requiring higher feedstock selectivity to achieve efficiency: only ideal material of <15% moisture of uniform sized chip, no dust, no high mineral content etc. 、●Scandinavia(Biosynergi Proces, Volter +), ●Western Europe(Spanner Re², URBAS, Arbor Heat & Power, Holzenergie Wegscheid, Uniconfort+), high efficiency achieved by pellets use with down draft(& stationary fluidized bed)(Burkhardt GmbH), pyrolysis element use(KÖB Viessmann+), ●Japan is usually tech savvy but lags behind in Wood gasifying(Yanmar, ZE Energy Inc, Chugairo Kogyo+), 、 ●Other areas (Community Power Corporation BioMax, Biogen corp ltd, Carbo Consult & Engineering+), Single unit 400KWh size by downdraft bed(this method generates clean gas but traditionally very picky for feedstock)(PHG Energy), some are heat generation focus(Infinite Energy Pvt, Advanced Climate Technologies),->>cont:

46

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 5 wood pellet

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -5, Wood pellet

-->cont: •1 FOREST RELATED: ✔1c Wood Gasification & Power generation:、◆MINI SIZE POWER generator(~10-200KWh~): Recently often CHP equipped sophisticated residential to small community/industrial use electrical generator is offered(Entrade, All Power Labs, HERZ Energietechnik+): less ash, more compact etc. ◆MINI SIZED HEAT only device: usually unrefined or DIY type system particularly at developing nations, but increasingly sophisticated devices are offered, and generates lowest cost heat by large margin in certain micro & macro regions: ●Europe(Kraft und Wärme aus Biomasse, GUNTAMATIC, Wallnöfer Walltherm, ATMOS - Jaroslav Cankař a syn+), some pellet boilers are also efficient by regular combustion(ÖkoFEN+), or pellet gasifying-direct combustion switchable(ETA Heiztechnik GmbH+), ●North America(Skanden Energy, Kuuma Lamppa Manufacturing+), ●Others(Associated Engineering Works Gasifier+), 、

✔1e Pellet: A form of "free energy" utilization or value adding in forest industry by use of sawmill & forest residual, Can become cheapest fuel avail in some areas, in some markets entire low grade logs can be more profitably used to produce pellets instead of lumber/pulp manufacturing. Major producers(Pinnacle Pellet, JSC Vyborgskaya cellulose, Enviva, German Pellets, Härjedalens Miljöbränsle+). Top producing counties(US, Canada, Germany, Sweden, Latvia, Russia+), Large consumers(UK, Italy, US, Germany, Sweden+), Top importers (UK[heavy for power generation], Italy, Denmark+), Roughly 50-50type breakdown use for residential heat vs industrial(ash yielding bark contained etc). Latter volumemight fluctuate rapidly by electrical generation pellet use policy. Some producers use✔ Steam Explosion for cell weakening and densification(also see p49 Torrefaction , p56,57 Hydrothermal carbonization)


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 6 wood ethanol

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -6, Wood ethanol

-->cont: •1 FOREST RELATED:、 ✔1f Biomass Briquettes: Usually non-industrial size production unless part of large pulp/peat/lumber/composite wood operation(often in Russia+): by shredding and compressing when stock is dry enough(moisture <16%), some are stand alone with 20,000ton+/yr scale with other biomass(Biocoal co in, KGN Biofuels+), System providers:(WEIMA Maschinenbau, Briquette-Machine, C.F. Nielsen+), Generally speaking this sector's leader is India, where product is called "biocoal" which is confusing with torrefied pellets. 、

✔1g Forest Residual to Cellulosic Ethanol & other Liquid Fuels: There are many combinations but main types are: i -Enzymatic Hydrolysis based, some pretreatments include classic sulphuric acid, alkaline to low cost Sub/Supercritical water etc:(Chempolis, St1 biofuels, Borregaard, Sekab,真庭市 - Mitsui Zosen, dins堺 大栄環境+)、 ii-Gasification + reforming + Fischer Tropsch can process whole wood fibre including lignin: (UPM-Kymmene, Woodland Biofuels, +), Small scale rotary kiln use gasifying(Micro Energy Japan+), Likely world's first first 10,000ton/yr level biomass feed commercialization in 2013, feedstock is mix of wood, plant, trash etc(KaidiHI.com - 阳光凯迪新能源集团有限公司) 、 iii-Pyroysis based: produces electrical power & heat while generates liquid fuel(BTG Bioliquids - Empyro BV, Fotum, Ensyn Technologies+), Mega "test" facility(Karlsruhe bioliq), iv-Sub/SuperCritical water(SCW) treatment, Process whole wood fibre (Licella - Ignite Energy Resources, Steeper Energy, Concord Blue, BTG World - BTG Biomass+): -->>continued

48


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 7 torrefaction

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -7, Torrefaction

-->> cont: •1 FOREST RELATED:✔1h Torrefaction,: Torrefied Pellets/BioCoal: Lower temp 200-300°C range oxygen-less process of dry material with final product with 70% of original mass with 90% of energy potential retained in compressed form: increase per volume heat capacity, hydrophobic (nonhygroscopic), overall lower cost than pellets per energy produced as delivered. Also various other benefits(eg easy grinding for co-feeding with coal, less abrasion of engine if used as coal water slurry fuel than conventional coal etc), some bio-binder pretreatment & palletizing before heat processing generally has better quality.

Not as economically disruptive as 2nd Gen bioethanol due to solid nature. Longer presence in Western Europe, particularly in Netherlands(Blackwood Technology, Torrcoal+), Other nations(Arbaflame, Arigna Biofuels, Torrec+), Euro Major's participation(ANDRITZ, AREVA+), Largest producers are in US with over 200,000ton/yr capacity(Zilkha Biomass, New Biomass Energy), but generally North America operations have newer participation with same level production cap. as Europe(Diacarbon, Airex Energy, Solvay Biomass), Some claim no indoor storage needs for rain(Arbaflame, HM3 Energy+), non western producers are rare(BioWindbell Technology+)

49

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 8 black liquor

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -8, black liquor

-->> cont: •1 FOREST RELATED:✔1i Pulp mill Black Liquor(BL) enhanced utilization: BL is by far the largest energy source(efficient pulp mills are net power generators) and core process medium in chemical pulp process that repeatedly gets cleaned & burned its lignin & hemi cellulose as pulpmill's energy source during operation: i-High energy Lignin as oil: for fuel & chemical raw material(Lignol-RenFuel+): lab type environment generation, dedicated large plant doesn't exist, ii-BL Gasification: Replace Tomlinson boiler by PulseEnhanced Black Liquor Gasification(ThermoChem Recovery International), or regular Gasification, & other methods of more energy recovery, option for biofuel etc(Chemrec se, Babcock & Wilcox+)

•2AGRICULTURALCellulosic Ethanol: Non food crop plant portion(also called advanced ethanol, 2nd generation biofuel etc): politically larger social ramification than forestry feedstock biofuel. This has been commercialized many times prior but frequent untimely events from losing money, to suddenly financial backers withdraw, or projects halt with no clear reason given etc. Most techs are actually higher cost than existing fuel, but a few are lowest cost in some situations, or depended on feed stock cost calculations. -->> continued

50

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 9 2nd gen biofuel

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -9, 2nd gen biofuel

-->> cont: •2AGRICULTURAL NON CROP PLANT PORTION Cellulosic Ethanol:

Finally after 2014, some consistent operations have been established, while many others are still on pilot production by using 3rd party system(without own facilities, not listed here): tech use is redundant with prior listed "1g Forest Residual".

✔2aEnzymatic Hydrolysis: Far less fuel recovery % & slower than other processes. i -Introductory type Cellulosic Ethanol: by "bolted on" to existing food stock ethanol plant: corn kernel fibre processing to increase extra 5-10% of ethanol production(Cellerate-Syngenta, Edeniq+), only 3rd party line production but claims < $1/gallon(< $0.265/litre)(GeoSynFuels), ii-Regular stand alone type Ethanol production, some use catalytic pretreatment: (Clariant, Inbicon, Iogen ca, Zeachem, American Process, Bioflex - GranBio, Beta Renewables, Abengoa Bioenergy+), Largest 2nd generation bio ethanol operation as of 2016(Dupont), Largest overall bio ethanol maker participates (POET llc), Starting outside of Europe/North America(Raizen, Henan Tianguan, Shandong Longlive+), Rare SuperCritical water(SCW) pretreatment tech provider✔(Renmatix)

✔2b Gasification + Steam Reform or/& Fischer-Tropsh: (Ineos+), some methods produce liquid fuel 3-4times more than above Enzyme method per given stock, orders of magnitude faster processing by direct synthesis with metal catalyst(Sekisui Chemical, Mitsui Zosen+), same efficiency with many Sub/SCW methods. Very minor utilization: eg Superheated steam✔(Sundrop Fuels+).

51


Cold fusion tesla scalar wave torsion field free energy over unity really all pseudo science the coming par

  • new perspective - “lowest cost” energy

  • from vast biomass -10, Anaerobic Digest.

•3 MUNICIPAL WASTE(MSW), Liquid Waste, INDUSTRIAL WASTE, AGRICULTURAL ANIMAL WASTE (this presentation treats animal fat/cooking oil as part of existing fuel & it is not discussed):

✔3aAnaerobic Digestion(AD) - to produce Biogas/Methane: by bacteria consuming waste.Also note at least some of microorganisms are electrically active(mainstream science accepted idea: Geobacter etc) and produce also anomalous field with various antioxident & electrical effects(rejected idea).、Completely mainstream tech and widely used as default process in many nations/sectors to produce "free" energy while infrequently used in others. 、

i-Sophisticated large sized Bio methane production(engine feedable), to Electrical generation systems with various scales: Largest types(STRABAG Umweltanlagen, Axpo Kompogas+), Mid to large size installation: (OWS nv, EnviTec Biogas, BTA international, PlanET-Biogas, IES BIOGAS, BTS Biogas, Xergi +), Smaller types(WELTEC BIOPOWER, ENSPAR Biogas, Schmack Biogas, CH Four Biogas+), Focused on upgrading biogas systems(Malmberg Gruppen+), Specialized for biogas engine(SCHNELL Motoren +) -->>cont

52

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Cold fusion tesla scalar wave torsion field free energy over unity really all pseudo science the coming par

  • new perspective - “lowest cost” energy

  • from vast biomass -11, Anaerobic Digest.2

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3a Anaerobic Digestion(AD) :i Biomethane、 Many installations operate like farming coop, for this type of sophisticated system Germany has highest installation(10,000units) & most power generation per capita: followed by rest of Europe(UK, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Czech, Sweden etc), Less extent in North America, or rest of world, UK strength is also in sewage biogas & Landfill Gas, 、

ii -Less sophisticated mini to small sized type has long been actively offered, particularly in India/Bangladesh area(Biotech India, Beta Pak Biogas, Puxintech+), ■Also significant family/housing based DIY type system in some nations around the world(eg Deenbandhu units in India: 4million+, Ban quản lý Dự án Khí sinh học installed 0.1million+ in Vietnam etc), ■Energy security conscious China's national policy installed DIY type system in rural community at least 40million units. 、 ■Professionally made home based system sold(HomeBiogas, Bsustain, Vivesty+), also septic tank replacement or converter types(BiogasPro Agama+), Not AD but fancy ethanol production type home unit operates with very limited feedstock(Micro Fueler),、 -->>continued

53

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Cold fusion tesla scalar wave torsion field free energy over unity really all pseudo science the coming par

  • new perspective - “lowest cost” energy

  • from vast biomass -12, Plastic to oil

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3a Anaerobic Digestion.:、iii-WasteWater processing by Anaerobic Digestion: Biogas from sludge processing, usually with various pretreatments including hydrolysis, alkaline etc, Some largest scale is like 100,000 ton+/yr level(Cambi, Veolia Exelys/Biothelys+), Others(Hager + Elsaesser, WABAG, ADI systems inc, Terax nz, Jeongbong kr, Hydroitalia - Colsen, Eliquo BV, Paques nl, Anaergia+), Methanogenic & Electrogenic microbe based methane & electricity generating waste water cleaning system:(Cambrian Innovation: works for fermentation residue type wastewater): Microbial fuel cell mechanics. Also see p62 Wet Air Oxidation.、

✔3bPlastic to Oil: After recycling, still about 130million tons/yr disposed world total, a fraction of which(but rapidly increasing) is made into fuel. Even if 90% of all plastic is converted with 70% efficiency recovery to fuel (PVC[Polyvinyl chloride] & PET[Polyethylene terephthalate] is 30-40% range recovery even rest of plastic can be 90%), it would make up negligible 1-1.5% of world oil consumption.But substantial benefit to the plastic to fuel converting operation or community that owns it, generally unreported in west but active operation world wide, more in oil shortage China and India etc, than in west. 、 Large Western mainstream corporations so far infrequently involved and even when do, they often avoid direct involvement & work through subsidiaries or as joint venture. -->>continued

54

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 13 plastic to oil 2

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -13, Plastic to oil 2

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3b Plastic to Oil:、 i-Pyrolysis: Oxygen deprived heating causes generation of liquid fuel, gas, and char. Most system can only take selective plastic(usually no PET & PVC), some can recover fuel with all types of plastic but most of cases oil quality suffers beyond 3-5% range PET/PVC and emit toxic fume, corrode or clog process line.

Many system can only produce "crude oil", and need further processing to use as gasoline or diesel replacement. Some system has adjustment to change recovery ratio of oil vs char: when focused to generate fuel, tires are generally weightwise 30-40% recovery to fuel, plastics are 60-90% level. It can be adjusted to have lower fuel produced with higher char/carbon recovery(agriculture etc use). All infeed material needs to be shredded.

■ This leaves currently only handful of devices/operations that can take a-all plastics, b-final direct gasoline-diesel equivalent/boiler useable oil without violating emission criteria(Klean Industries, Blest+): usually custom ordered type system needs to be made with premium price for corrosion-clogging control, & chlorine separation etc. But Wada method allows all plastic with no customization(Hokupere yukakangen+), Also Toshiba Created 50% PVC feedable device in 1990s and shelved it. -->>continue

55

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 14 depolymerization

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -14, Depolymerization

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3b Plastic to Oil: i -Pyrolysis:、 ■ Can make gasoline-diesel equivalent fuel If no PET/PVC is in feed stock(Royco Beijing+), ■ Large number of installations(HuayinEnergy, Beston Plastic, Shangqiu Ruixin Environmental, Klean Industries, Cynar Plastic, KingTiger group, TTechnology.com.pl+), Some European market targeted devices come with CHP(GB Pyrolysis+), High profile portable small device, with large devices has option of processing PET & PVC(Blest), Can process unsorted plastic and other waste(Green Light Energy Solutions+) ■ Zero emission claimed system(Ecomation Oy+), ■ Rare mainstream corporate involvement(Agilyx) 、ii -Catalytic Depolymerization: Depends on catalyst often similar strong effect as Sub-SuperCritical water(SCW) & categorization is sometimes fuzzy(ReCycled Refuse International, Pyrocrat Systems LLP, Enviro-Power Pte +), Rare Western mainstream positive exposure + with successful continuous operation in US(PK Clean),

✔3c Hydrothermal Carbonization/Wet Pyrolysis/Hydropyrolysis: "primitive" version of SubCritical water treatment: can process all organic matter(carbon involved: biomass, municipal/industrial waste) with high moisture over 3-10hrs in 200-300°C with generally 5-10times atmospheric pressure to decompose feedstock to mainly recover BioCoal(variations like biochar etc is possible with higher temperature) -->>cont:

56

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 15 hydrolysis

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -15, Hydrolysis

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3c Hydrothermal Carbonization:、Industrial focus(CarboREN - SunCoal, Loritus, Antaco, Ingelia SL+), Smaller sized installation(Grenol GmbH, Oax-eco+), also option of making hydrocarbon chemical(AVA-CO2), Wastewater focus as raw material(TerraNova Energy, Aqua Enviro+),

Installation level/Production capacity is much smaller than Torrefaction(competing dry version of this process), particularly out of Europe. There is a mainstream Dutch govn't backed movement of converting marshland fast growing weed into fuel but progress being stopped since 2013: TORWASH(Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland: ECN)

✔3dSubCritical/SuperCritical water treatment(SCW)/Hydrothermal Liquefaction/SuperHeated Steam: Can adjust parameter to gasify heavily or treat non-liquefied portion for the second round process. High % liquefaction might require certain mineral catalysis(usually recoverable). Some observed history of abrupt withdrawal from this tech by many companies in similar way as by other "real disruptive tech". Processes all plastic or all organic waste with high fuel recovery very quickly with low cost, Biomass and Waste to Energy for this process is often all feedstock mixable, hence no particular focus on plastic etc only (SteeperEnergy, Genifuel, Asian Giant Engineering, Granit Technologies SA, Greentech solutions grts jp, Sustainable Waste Power Systems+), Partial use of catalysis required HydroPyrolysis(D4 Energy) ->>cont:

57

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 16 hydrolysis

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -16, Hydrolysis

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3dSubCritical/SuperCritical water treatment(SCW):、 ■Some SuperHeated steam devices can take large load with less or no infeed stock shredding with little extra time needs(Messe-hp jp+): But produce large amount of char along with oil, Can produce biocoal at low cost(Rematec jp+). 、 ■Wastewater sludge application by SCW type is mostly focused on decomposing while efficient energy production might be more of minor focus(Innoveox, 3V Green Eagle+), currently largest scale municipal wastewater SCW treatment(SuperWater Solutions), Liquid or solid toxin focus might recover energy as minor by-product if tried(Hanwha Chemical, Techno-EMI, Aquarden - Waterox+), Also see Wet Air Oxidation(p65)、

✔3eDirect combustion of MSW: Here only MSW(Municipal Solid Waste) type is discussed since other feedstock is already very prevalent as existing techi -Electrical Power production:(Instead of burying trash into landfill), Well developed technology to specifically handle Waste mix, many in North West Europe also produces CHP. Sometimes criticized for high NOx/SOs emission, but in many G7 type level nations it is usually far below regulation requirement,

Electrical power generation efficiency is often quite low with 15-20%(eg: emission & ash reduction focus in Japan), still overall not high: 20-30+ %. Most conventional large scale combustion system(Stoker & reverse grate: Martin GmbH, Keppel Seghers, Hitachi Zosen INOVA+), Also of general biomass focus,

58

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 17 combustion

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -17, Combustion

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NOWNESS WASTE: ✔3eDirect combustion of MSW: i -Electrical Power production:

Due to large system existence, some European trash market demand exceeds supply: Sweden & Germany purchases/imports trash from other EU nations. 、 ii-SRF/RDF: Compressed cube shaped & packaged combustion boiler feedable trash(Sita UK, BMH Technology+), SRF(Solid Recovered Fuel) has EU standard based, while RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) can be any burnable waste(NOVAGO+)

✔3fGasification: "Value added" combustion with options of making liquid fuels/chemicals/storage(also p45,46): i -Conventional type: ■Fluidized Bed 500-600°C low temp & lowest emission for large industrial operations with ash vitrification(Ebara, Mitsubishi Hvy), integrated with zero waste cement plant complex CKK process(Kawasaki Hvy), 、 ■Coal added to "fudge" efficiency to 32%(JFE), ■Had good growth till 2000s but lost to newer tech competitors recently(Thermo Select+), ■Crop waste sector gets attention(ICM inc, Frontline Bioenergy+) ■Flexible feedstock including coal mix (Energy & Environmental Research Center+), ■Mid size catering(Kinsei Sangyo, Energos+), ■Smaller scale or containerized mini community/mining camp etc WtE gasification-treatment system(Waste to Energy Canada, Ostrand jp+),、

59

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 18 gas to liquid

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -18, Gas to liquid

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3fGasification: "Value added" combustion:、ii-Sub-SuperCritical Water gasification(SCW): done quietly since early 1980s in Japan(Mitsubishi Kakoki, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Machinery)(US operators seem to have gone underground at that time), or recent participation (Hydromethan, Gensos nl, Osaka Gas+): SCW can be more easily turned to liquid fuels, directly, or by reforming. iii-Complete thermal oxidation: of all organic waste with no emission ie no chimney needed(Zeros inc/Ste Clark), microplasma link(p63)

✔3gGasification+Reforming/Catalytic conversion to Liquid fuel(GTL: Gas to Liquid), Methane to gasoline etc: Close relation or often same tech as wood/Coal to liquid fuel: Succeeding commercialization on & off since 1940s(Germany, Japan+), then extensively in 1960s-90s South Africa: at one time almost all gasoline was made from coal via Fischer–Tropsch(F-T) process(Sasol+), More recent entry(Accelergy, Fluor, Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions+), Also mini scale operation from 1970s in west with same/similar process for coal liquefaction or methane to gasoline type process(Shell, Exxon Mobile+): ->> continue

60

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 19 gas to liquid 2

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -19, Gas to liquid 2

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3g GTL - Gas to Liquid: Coal to liquid fuel link:、 Other after yr2000 commercialization examples: Sasol active outside of S Africa, Large Gas To Liquid (GTL) refinery: PetroSA. Underground Coal To Liquid process: small scale(Linc Energy - Carbon Energy, Emerging Fuels Technology+). Sub-SCW & F-T(REG Synthetic fuels+), Most of Coal to Liquid tech(CTL) is Indirect synthesis, ie: ICTL. 、 China is prioritizing CTL(BRICC 北京煤化工研究分院-煤炭科学技术研究院有限公司煤化工分院,. YitaiGroup.com 内蒙古伊泰集团下属公司山西晋城无烟煤矿业集团有限责任公司 , Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group +), also Direct Coal Liquefaction: semi pseudoscience in western media level(Shenhua Group 神华集团,.CCRI 煤炭科学技术研究院有限公司, Yanzhou Mining Group 兖州煤业股份有限公司 +) Western mainstream media/govn't/NGO generally didn't introduce the tech till around 2012 in connection with biomass related subject.

Although various GTL techs differ from each other, produced Waste based liquid fuel become lowest cost fuel in many regions and mildly disruptive(most companies persist in emphasizing "small scale") & somewhat game changing since this reinforces public perception it can apply to: a- all organic mass: forest, plant, b- lower cost than conventional liquid fuel would be widely available since various syngas or methane can be processed(natural gas, coal gas, CoalBed Methane+):(Enerkem, ThermoChem - Fulcrum Energy, Biofuels Power, Velocys, CompactGT, +), -->> continue

61

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 20 plasma gasifying

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -20, Plasma gasifying

->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3gGTL - Gas to Liquid: Qualifies as largest producer of 2nd gen biofuel as of 2016?- biodiesel left over glycerine gasification & reforming, i.e. not direct cellulose use(BioMCN), additionally even CO2 as fuel source(LanzaTech+), GTL tech has support from major Western local governments, international corporations/mainstream group recently to indicate another official wider availability of energy source, Small trailer portable device(Maverick Synfuels)、

✔3hLess Conventional Gasification or Liquefaction:i -Hot Plasma Gasification/Gas Cleaning: Original use was high energy use expensive toxin decomposition or metal recovery from waste, but plasma assisted gasifying becomes cost competitive. This is now "conventional" plasma tech: widely known key players (Plasco, Alter NRG -*Westinghouse, Advanced Plasma Power -*Tetronics +), less known successful installations(*InEnTec, Peat International, CHO Power -*EuroPlasma, BellWeather Gasification Techonologies,*Phoenix Solutions Co +), Long lasting induction based electrodeless RF plasma torch(*Applied Plasma Technologies, High Temperature Technologies Corp -*Tekna Plasma +). * indicates original tech developers 。ii-Steam Plasma: less fume than hot plasma, much lower CAPEX & OPEX: portable size, plasma gas is water/steam: more like low energy use SuperCritical water(SCW) based gasification: Strong oxidizing effect(ie moisture insensitive, no NOx or Dioxin). But mostly pilot type commercialization as industrial unit since current focus is mostly on full decomposition rather than fuel generation(PlasmaAir AG, Forest Plasma Lab, Strebl Energy+), Rare energy/gasification focus exists(Green Science 그린사이언스, Plazarium+)

62


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 21 micro plasma

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -21, Micro PLasma

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3hLess Conventional Gasification/Liquefaction: 、

iii-MicroPlasma: Related to a string of highly economically disruptive effects(Torsion field), and Official Western research in dealing with organic material by this tech is avoided, Effects generated by:

● Rotating Magnetic Field( Экология ECOUOM+), ● Rotating Electrode(НАУЧНО — ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННЫЙ ЦЕНТР «ПЛАЗЕР»+), ● Self running oxygen-charging PyroMagnetic Furnace waste-to-energy decomposer(ZeroMozJapan, T.H. ELEMA ENG. CO, Jimdoシンエイメタルテック+), Gasification is quite effective but that part is not commercialized, Minor heat utilization from trash "incineration". Some PyroMagnetic Furnace is completely self running with no outside power needed, & pseudoscientized but has useful effects like radiation remediation(p202) or torsion field(p119-144), decomposes dioxin even process generates only 300-400°C heat: full of "politically incorrect scientific effects" to be avoided by academics.、 Currently commercialized focus is for mostly fertilizer generation, complete organic trash decomposition down to magnetized ash with almost no exhaust fume(indoor use ok). Ash has uncommon bioenhancing effects. This microplasma effect for non-organic matter(metal) is more widely used(Bmax+) but overall still ignored tech.

63

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 22 cold plasma

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -22, Cold Plasma

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3hLess Conventional Gasification/Liquefaction: 、iv-Cold Plasma gas reforming-cleaning-gasification: Usually for wastewater, Unlike hot plasma, Cold Plasma has ionization in electron only and not in molecules: Very low power use, less fume than hot plasma, usually lower cost process than any mainstream equivalent methods(except occasionally SCW methods, see below): Usually container/trailer portable gasification system (MagneGas, TopLine Energy, AdaptiveArc, FabGroups - HydroQuebec+), Both solid & liquid waste(Enersol Technologies, Xfuels+), GlidArc use:(PowerCan 200, Mill Hand Thailand+), *note cold plasma effects are still in process of transitioning from pseudoscience status into Western acceptance,、 v-Sub-SuperCritical Water(SCW)/Thermal liquefaction-depolymerization(above either 374°C or Pressure 221bar-22.1Mpa- 3250psi[221times sea level], technically anything over 100°C with ambient pressure or higher is for "sub", but usually lot closer to SCW level: Highly potent and can gasify/liquify/decompose any organic matter at low cost(GreatPoint Energy, AltacaEnerji, Biomass Technology Group BV, Earth Wind & Fire Technologies+), Or can make biochar or value added 5-HMF(HydroxyMethylFurfural)(AVA-CO2+), 、

SCW and cold plasma tech is fully science approved, yet has disruptive efficiency in many applications, Often use of catalysis(KOH, K2CO3, Ni etc). Need accurate temperature & time control to maximize liquid fuel recovery instead of decomposition into water & CO2 etc. Energy generation application is treated extremely low key & often avoided at mainstream level. Only mainstream SCW for energy use is as turbine rotation medium. -->>continue

64


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 23 supercritical w

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -23, SuperCritical W.

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3hLess Conventional Gasifying/Liquefaction: vSub-SuperCritical Water(SCW):、One high profile company rather mysteriously lost large $, or entire industry suddenly drops whole business en mass with no clear explanation(Changing World Technologies, Dozen mainstream companies in Japan in early yr2000)(For details see water tech report [click here] and search "ORGANO"), Yet re-surging quietly in mainstream Japan: eg sewage water sludge superheated steam gasification(Meta Water, Chugoku Denryoku+), Also used for AD pretreatment of solid or liquid waste(Gekkeikan+),、

Wet Air Oxidation is often used for WasteWater treatment: Slightly different from & more "primitive" mechanics than SubCritical water process by use of bubbling reactor to inject oxygen/air with lower pressure than SubCritical water method, also generates very small amount of emission, Usually used for wastewater process(Veolia Water Athos, Bertrams ch, Wetox nz, Merichem - Kenox+), Used as pretreatment(Granit Technologies SA+),、

■ Also lab success exists, of cellulose liquefaction with Phenol, Glycerol, Butane+ as SuperCritical medium.、 vi-Catalytic Depolymerization(or might have reliance with hydrothermal process)(Greenbase Sepadu, Green Power Inc, Alphakat, Nexxoil, BFCC - Biodiesel Technologies s.r.o+), seemingly low cost & effective, possibly even simpler than SCW. Almost completely ignored by mainstream West.、

65

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 24 landfill gas

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -24, Landfill Gas

-->> cont; •3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3hLess Conventional Gasification/Liquefaction:、 vii-Super low cost Solar Thermal use Gasification(Al Weimer+), viii-Molten metal gasification method: Steam is also injected to work like supercritical water reaction as low cost disruptive tech(HydroMax Diversified Energy+), pilot plant(Ze-Gen), ix-Some unique type of Pyrolysis can be price competitive if byproduct is profitable(Pyrolyzer Spirajoule+), 1MW scale system(Джулинда Технолоджи+): From small residential furnace to commercial sizes Pyrolysis share in heat generation is higher in CIS nations than most of west

✔3iLandfill Gas(LFG): 50%+ of LFG is recoverable methane, generated by oxygenless anaerobic decomposition of buried organic waste. Although energy production is negligible as a whole macro scale(eg UK deemed 6TWh/yr level, 0.2% of entire power needs), if consider toxic gas removal process as cost, then LFG becomes significant "free" energy in local landfill area. Also at some locations it becomes lowest cost energy as is. Methane carbon footprint reduction has various incentives & benefits.、 UK, US, Canada leads in energy recovery from Landfill Gas:(Cambrian Energy, Viridor, DTE Biomass, CLP Envirogas, Infinis, Republic Services, LFG Technologies, Biffa, Progressive Waste, Ener-G+). At those most advanced nations, it is deemed overall 15-50% of methane gas is recovered for power generation: eg UK is does recovery at 80% of landfill sites as flared or power/heat production, with 50-70% of that is actually used for power generation combustion, -->> continued

66

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


New perspective lowest cost energy from vast biomass 25 landfill gas 2

new perspective - “lowest cost” energy from vast biomass -25, Landfill Gas 2

-->cont:•3VARIOUS NONWOOD WASTE: ✔3iLandfill Gas(LFG):、 UK/US/Canada are leaders, then Continental Europe & Australia follow(Green Gas International BV, Landfill Gas Industries+)

Fair portion of gas is let off as flaring(burning) even there is LFG management system in place(Hofstetter BV, GC Environmental, Comcor Environmental +), Some small old landfill sites can also recover energy (Deponigas ApS+), Much higher utilization % at large landfills, Power generation needs proper gas filtering of siloxane, H2S etc(Unison Solutions, Xebec, PpTek, SulfaCHAR, Prodeval +), recovery around 30-35% range with large majority Reciprocating Engine special flexible power generator(Siloxa AG, GE Jenbacher - Clarke-Energy+), 1MW+ capacity(can produce more than 1MW per hr) type system can use Gas Turbine, a few add CHP for higher recovery, or profitable Landfill gas to liquid fuel is a pilot+ level commercialization(Renovare Fuels, Velocys+)

Note: Current waste disposal on land fill is close to none in Germany, Netherlands, Sweden etc, more 3-5 nations with 5% range: those nations are not focused on LFG recovery as future energy source.

67

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


Contents1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

Contents

End of Part 1: ENTIRE 5 SERIES CAN BE VIEWED IN ONE FILE AT

http://www.slideshare.net/BenRusuisiak/free-energy-pseudo-science-new-nature-paradigm-on-energy-technology-34087356

P68 Biomass II, Largely ignored clean natural gas

p78 Ten categories of “over-unity” claims

p99 Commercialization attempts

p116 Law of Thermodynamics, “Dissident” scientists

p119 Scalar “wave”, Standing wave resonance, Torsion field..

p145 Terahertz & Far Infrared waves, “No light” Photo Catalysis, ORMUS..

p168 LENR/Cold Fusion update, Losers & Gainers by its success

p181 Reduced suppressions, energy paradigm smooth transition models

p191 Ramifications if inventor tech becomes mainstream

p223 Already in use? - Zeropoint Energy related "outrageous" claims

p258 Summary & Macro level recommendations

  • linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm- Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada


  • Login