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The Muslim Empires. 1450-1800 Chapter 15 – Section 1. The Ottoman Empire. Ottoman dynasty started in late 13 th century under the leadership of Osman in the NW corner of Anatolian Peninsula.

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The Muslim Empires

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The muslim empires

The Muslim Empires


Chapter 15 – Section 1

The ottoman empire

The Ottoman Empire

  • Ottoman dynasty started in late 13th century under the leadership of Osman in the NW corner of Anatolian Peninsula.

  • Originally, OsmanTurks were peaceful but as Seljuk Empire began to decline (early 14th century) the Osman Turks began to expand

The ottoman s expand

The Ottoman’s Expand

  • In the 14th century, the Ottoman Turks expanded into the Balkans.

    • Sultan – Ottoman ruler’s title

  • Strong military was built up

    • Janissaries – elite guard

      • Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans – then converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan. (quest #2)

Mehmet ii or mehmed ii

Mehmet II or Mehmed II

  • Ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481

  • In 1453, he toppled the Byzantine Empire, capturing Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul, (quest #8) and making it the new Ottoman capital

  • Expanded the empire to become the ruler of “two lands” (Europe and Asia) and “two seas” (the Mediterranean and the Black)

Scene from the battle defending Constantinople from a 1499 painting

The muslim empires

“What a city we have given over to plunder and destruction.”

Mehmet II when he saw the ruin inflicted on the city of Constantinople

(quest #3)

  • Sunni Muslim

Watch dvd constantinople to istanbul on world history video program dvd 2 6 minutes

Watch DVD Constantinople to Istanbul on World History video Program DVD #2(6 ½ minutes)

Sultan selim i the grim

Sultan Selim I (the Grim)

1514 – 1520

Sultan Selim I takes control over Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia – the original heartland of Islam religion

Includes several holy cities of:


Makkah (Mecca)


Sultan selim i

Sultan Selim I

  • Declares himself the new “caliph” [key-lif, kal-if] – defender of the faith and successor to Muhammad (quest #4)

  • Spread Empire to North Africa

  • Pashas – appointed officials who collected taxes, maintained law and order and were directly responsible to the sultan’s court in Istanbul.

    (quest #5)

  • Sunni Muslim

Suleyman i the magnificent

SuleymanI the Magnificent

  • Reigned from 1520 to 1566 and continued the expansion

  • Battle of Mohacs (1526) major victory over the Hungarians

  • Conquered Baghdad in 1534

  • Sunni Muslim

Suleyman mosque in istanbul

Suleyman Mosque in Istanbul

The Suleyman Mosque in

Istanbul. At the height of

the Ottoman Turkish

Empire's power in the

16th century, Sultan Suley-

man the Magnificent ordered

the construction of this

mosque. Surrounding the place

of prayer is a great complex of buildings that house schools, a library, a Turkish bath, a public kitchen, a caravanserai, a hospital and shops. This mosque was designed by the architect Sinan the Great and built in the years 1550 to 1557 A.D.

Turkish bath

Turkish Bath

Differences between shia and sunni

Differences Between Shia and Sunni

  • Shiites

    • About 15% of all Muslims

    • Islam’s leader should be a descendant of Mohammad

    • Qualified religious leaders have the authority to interpret the sharia (Islamic law)

  • Sunnis

    • About 85% of all Muslims

    • Leaders should be chosen through ijma, or consensus

    • The sharia was codified and closed by the 10th century

Nature of ottoman rule

Nature of Ottoman Rule

  • Gunpowder empire – formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered by mastering the technology of firearms (quest #6)

  • Sultan

    • Supreme authority in both

      • Political and

      • Military (quest #7)

    • Son always succeeded the father, not necessarily the oldest

  • caliph1. a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad.

    2. any of the former Muslim rulers of Baghdad (until 1258) and of the Ottoman Empire (from 1571 until 1924).

Sultan rule

Sultan Rule

  • Topkapi – “iron gate” was the center of the sultan’s power

  • Built in 15th century by Mehmet II

  • It had an administrative purpose and served as the private residence of the ruler and his family. (like Versailles)

  • Harem – “sacred place” or private domain of the sultan and his wives

The muslim empires

  • Grand Vizier – led the meetings of the imperial council. The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister) (quest #9)

  • Empire was divided into provinces and districts, each governed by officials

  • Ulema – administered the legal system and schools for education

Ottoman society

Ottoman Society

  • Four main occupation groups

    • Peasants (farmed leased land)

    • Artisans (organized by craft guild)

    • Merchants (most privileged class outside of ruling elite)

    • Pastoral peoples(nomadic herders)

  • Women were allowed to own and inherit property. They could not be forced into marriage and could seek divorce. (quest #10)

Ottoman society cont

Ottoman Society, cont.

  • Officials and merchants began to imitate the habits and lifestyles of Europeans.

  • Wore European clothing

  • Coffee was introduced to Ottoman society and spread to Europe

  • Some sultans tried to counter these trends though

Ottoman art

Ottoman Art

  • Sultans patrons of the Arts

  • From Mehmet II to early 18th century saw a flourish a pottery, rugs, silk, textiles, jewelry, arms and armor

  • Architecture was the greatest contribution of the Ottoman Empire to the world of art (quest #11)

  • Sinan (greatest Ottoman architect) built 81 mosques including the Suleimaniye Mosque in Istanbul

The rule of the safavids sah fah veed

The Rule of the Safavids(sah-fah-veed)

Chapter 15, section 2

The muslim empires


Europe and asia today

Europe and Asia today

Rise of the safavid dynasty

Rise of the Safavid Dynasty

  • At the beginning of the 16th century, a new dynasty known as the Safavids

  • Unlike neighboring Islamic countries, the Safavids were Shiite Muslims.

  • Founder – Shah Ismail

    • Descendant of Safi al-Din (thus name Safavid)

    • Founded by Shah Ismail in 1501 and lasted until 1722

The muslim empires

  • Safi al-Din was the leader of a community of Turkish ethnic groups in Azerbaijan near the Caspian Sea. (early 14th century)

  • 1501 – Ismail seized most of Iran and Iraq

    • Named himself shah – king of a new Persian state

Shah ismail

Shah Ismail

  • Sent Shiite preachers to Ottoman Empire to convert members – against wishes of the Ottoman Sultan

  • He also ordered the massacre of Sunni Muslims in Baghdad in 1508.

  • Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire advanced against the Safavids in Persia and won a major battle in Tabriz. Ismail later regained Tabriz

Battle of chaldiran

Battle of Chaldiran

  • The critical battle in this campaign was the battle of Chaldiran in 1514

  • The Ottomans won and temporarily occupied the Safavid capital of Tabriz but could not completely destroy the Safavid state

  • The Ottomans and Safavids continued to fight intermittingly for the next two centuries

The muslim empires

  • Shah claimed to be the spiritual leader of Islam and spread Islam throughout Persia.

  • Used Shiite faith as a unifying force for Empire

  • 1580 – Ottomans went on attack again

  • Placed Azerbaijan under Ottoman rule and controlled the Caspian Sea.

  • See map on page 469

Shah abbas 1588 1629

Shah Abbas 1588 -1629

  • Signed a peace treaty with the Ottoman’s after the Ottoman attack.

  • Lost much territory

  • Capital of Safavids moved to Isfahan from Tabriz

  • What led to fighting of the Ottomans and Safavids?

Shah abbas 1588 16291

Shah Abbas 1588 -1629

  • Reached height of glory

  • System similar to Janissaries was created to train administrators to help govern

  • Army strengthened with latest weapons

  • Moved against Ottomans in 17th century to try to regain territory

  • 1612 – peace treaty signed to regain Azerbaijan

The muslim empires

  • Safavid Empire lost its vigor after death of Shah Abbas

  • Religious orthodoxy (traditional religious beliefs) was increased

    • Example – women forced to wear veils again

    • How did the Safavid Empire reach its pinnacle under Shah Abbas?

Shah hussein

Shah Hussein

  • Early 18th century

  • Afghan peoples invaded – seized the capital of Isfahan

  • Ruling family forced to retreat to Azerbaijan

Political and social structures

Political and Social Structures

  • Majority of people were Persian

  • Most were farmers or townspeople


Bureaucracy and landed classes

Common people

Role of the shah

Role of the Shah

  • Safavid rulers were supported by Shiite Muslims

  • Thought founder of empire (Shah Ismail) was a direct successor to the prophet Muhammad.

  • Shia Islam was the state religion

  • More available to subjects than other countries rulers

  • Controlled the aristocrats

Culture arts

Culture & Arts

  • Strong in science, medicine and mathematics

  • Saw growth of arts during 1588 – 1629 (Shah Abbas reign)

  • Mosques richly decorated

  • Palaces beautiful

  • Metalwork, elaborate tiles, delicate glass

  • Silk weaving

  • Carpet weaving flourished (Persian carpets in demand)

  • Riza-i-Abbasi – most famous artist

The grandeur of the moguls

The Grandeur of the Moguls

Chapter 15, section 3

The muslim empires


  • The Conquests of Babur

  • Page 456 in book

Mogul dynasty

Mogul Dynasty

  • 1517 – established a new dynasty in area of India

  • Not natives of India – but came from mountainous region north of the Indus River valley.

  • Founder – Babur (Ruled1517 – 1530)

  • His forces crossed the Khyber Pass to India in 1517.



  • Forces much smaller but had advanced weapons including artillery

  • Captured Delhi and established his power in North India.

The reign of akbar 1556 1605

The Reign of Akbar 1556 - 1605

  • Babur’s grandson

    • Only 14 when he ascended the throne

    • Intelligent

  • Mogul rule expanded to most of India

  • Used heavy artillery to get India under his rule

The muslim empires

See page 474

Akbar 1556 1605

Akbar 1556 - 1605

  • Greatest of the conquering Mogul monarchs

  • Best known for humane character of his rule

  • Tolerate



  • Muslim

    • Adopted a policy of religious tolerance

    • Tolerated Hindu practices

    • Welcomed Christian views by Jesuit advisers at court

    • Took a Hindu princess as one of his wives

Akbar s rule

Akbar’s Rule

  • Tolerant in administration of his government

    • Non-native Muslims filled upper ranks of government

    • Lower ranking positions were often Hindu.

    • Zamindars – local officials often received plots of farmland for temporary use

    • Zamindars had considerable power in their local district

Akbar era

Akbar Era

  • Time of progress

  • Heavy tax – 1/3 of annual harvest was given as tax

  • Prosperous with foreign trade

    • Included Indian goods, textiles, tropical food, spices, precious stones exported in exchange for gold and silver

Decline of the moguls

Decline of the Moguls

  • Jahangir (juh-HAN-GIHR) succeeded his father Akbar 1605 - 1628

  • Able and ambitious

  • Strengthened the central government’s control over the vast empire

  • Fell under influence of one of his wives – Persian-born NurJahan

Shah jahan 1628 1658

Shah Jahan 1628-1658

  • NurJahan had arranged a marriage of her neice to her husband’s third son and ultimate successor, Shah Jahan.

  • Shah Jahan expanded boundaries to include Deccan Plateau (southern Peninsula of India)

  • Failed to deal with domestic problems

  • Inherited empty treasury, but put heavy strain on treasury with military and expensive building projects – raised taxes

Shah aurangzeb crowns self

Shah Aurangzeb Crowns self

  • Shah Jahan Became ill in mid 1650’s.

    • Sons struggled for power during this time

  • Aurangzeb (son) killed brother and put father in (Shah Jahan) in prison

  • Crowned himself emperor in 1658

  • Notable expansionist of empire

  • Very wealthy

Shah aurangzeb 1658 1707

Shah Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707

  • One of the most controversial rulers in the history of India

  • High principles

  • Tried to eliminate India’s “social evils.”

    • Forbade Hindu custom of suttee (cremating a widow on husband’s funeral pyre)

    • Forbade gambling and drinking

  • Devout Muslim

    • Reversed Mogul policies of religious tolerance

    • Hindus were forced to convert to Islam

Suttee or self cremation involves widows who voluntarily lie by her dead husband's side on his funeral pyre to be burnt alive with the corpse.

The british in india

The British in India

  • 1650 – British trading forts were established in Surat (now city of Calcutta)

  • Traded cotton for spices

  • Sir Robert Clive – Chief representative for East India Company

  • French also established their own forts on the east coast of India

  • See map p. 476

Mogul society

Mogul Society

  • Moguls were foreigners in India

  • Muslims ruling Hindus

  • As Hindus, women had an active role – for political advice, some fought on battlefields, some received salaries, some owned land and took part in business

  • Under Muslim rule – certain restrictions were put on women

Mogul culture

Mogul Culture

  • Two lifestyles – Indian and Persian coming together with beautiful architectural style

  • TajMahal – example of this

    • Built by the emperor Shah Jahan in the mid-17th century in memory of his wife – MumtaxMahal. She died at age 39 giving birth to 14thchild!

    • Employed 20,000 workers

    • Lasted more than 20 years to build

    • Considered most beautiful building in India

Mogul art

Mogul Art

  • Paintings also artistic achievement of Moguls

  • “Akbar style” – included the portrayal of humans in action – characteristic not seen in Persian art.

  • Imitated European art forms – including use of perspective and lifelike forms

The muslim empires

  • Ottoman Empire map

  • Selim I

    Sultans picture

    Turkish bath

    Suttee picture and information


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