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More Women in the Workforce – Making sense for business and the Economy Irish Presidency 2013 - Gender Equality Conference Dublin Castle 29-30 April

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More Women in the Workforce – Making sense for business and the Economy Irish Presidency 2013 - Gender Equality Conference Dublin Castle 29-30 April . Willem ADEMA Senior Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD.

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More Women in the Workforce – Making sense for business and the EconomyIrish Presidency 2013 - Gender Equality Conference Dublin Castle 29-30 April

Willem ADEMASenior Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD

gender gaps in educational attainment have closed and or reversed in oecd countries but
Gender gaps in educational attainment have closed and/or reversed)in OECD countries but…

Proportion of men and women who have a tertiary degree 2010, by age group

Source: OECD (2012), Education at a Glance

despite gains in education gender employment gaps continue to persist also through the crisis
... despite gains in education, gender employment gaps continue to persist, also through the crisis.

Employment rates by age group and gender, quarterly from 1st quarter 2007 to last quarter 2012

Source: OECD Gender Data Portal, www.oecd.org/gender/data

women continue to have slower career progression
Women continue to have slower career progression …

Women’s shares in the labour force and senior management in the private sector, 2010

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

be predominantly employed in certain economic service sectors
… be predominantly employed in certain economic service sectors…

Feminisation rates of service activities

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

are less likely to be entrepreneurs
… are less likely to be entrepreneurs...

Employers as a proportion of the employed, by gender, 2010

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

and have lower earnings
… and have lower earnings.

Gender pay gap in earnings for full-time employees, 2000 and 2010

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

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Policy levers
  • Women are better educated and occupy more highly skilled, better paid jobs than before. It would be more efficient if economies and societies made better use of this through by:
  • Labourmarket institutions that allow swift adjustments of work patterns
  • Combined with family-friendly policies (e.g. childcare)…
  • … while encouraging more equal gender sharing of paid and unpaid work (tax/ben policy, family policy)
  • Assessment and monitoring
men could do more at home
Men could do more at home

Unpaid work and female employment rates, recent years

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap Act Now. (www.oecd.org/gender)

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

provide paid employment protected parental leave and promote more equal use among parents
Provide paid employment-protected parental leave and promote more equal use among parents

Paid parental leave (supplementary to paid maternity leave), 2008

  • Paid parental leave, Evidence suggests :
    • extending parental leave entitlements had a small positive effect on the female-to-male employment ratio but only up to two years of leave;
    • extending paid parental leave is associated with an increase in the gender pay gap among full-time workers;
  • Encourage fathers to take available parental leave, also by reserving part of the parental leave entitlement for their exclusive and non-transferable use.

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

closing the gaps in participation can help sustain labour force and gdp growth
Closing the gaps in participation can help sustain labour force and gdp growth

Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap, Act Now

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