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Principles of Two Dimensional Design. THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION. UNITY AND VARIETY BALANCE WEIGHT AND GRAVITY EMPHASIS SPACE. THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF DESIGN. Line, Shape, Texture, Value, and Color. IN COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE PARTS TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS WHOLE.

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The principles of composition
THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION

UNITY AND VARIETY

BALANCE

WEIGHT AND GRAVITY

EMPHASIS

SPACE


The visual elements of design
THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

Line, Shape, Texture, Value, and Color

IN COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE PARTS TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS WHOLE

THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION

UNITY AND VARIETY

WEIGHT AND GRAVITY

BALANCE

EMPHASIS

SPACE


Unity and variety
UNITY AND VARIETY

UNITY

Unity can be defined as similarity, oneness, togetherness or cohesion

VARIETY

Variety can be defined as difference. You create variety when elements are changed.

Learning to find the right balance between unity and variety is the key to a visually successful work.

COMPOSITION IS AN ART AND NOT A SCIENCE


Unity variety
Unity/Variety

Andy Warhol

16 Jackies

1964 slikscreen

Hannah Hoch

Cut with a Kitchen Knife, 1919

Collage, 44 x 35”


Unity variety1
Unity/Variety

Devorah Sperbe

After The Last Supper

2005 85″h x 29′w.

20,763 spools of thread

Unity and variety are the cornerstones of composition, combined effectively the composition is both cohesive and active.


Gestalt principles of design
GESTALT PRINCIPLES of DESIGN

The visual perception

that emphasizes the importance of

the whole composition through the

combination and use of :

grouping,

containment, repetition,

proximity,

continuity and closure

to create visualunity


Gestalt
GESTALT

Gestalt Psychology emphasizes the importance of unity, connection and completion.

THEORY:

VISUAL INFORMATION IS UNDERSTOOD AS A WHOLE BEFORE IT IS EXAMINED SEPARATELY.

Eaxmlpe:

Msot peolpe can raed any snetnace as lnog as the frsit and lsat lteters of ecah wrod are crroect.


Therefore you can create deliberate relationships among different visual elements
Therefore, you can create deliberate relationships among different visual elements

USING:

Containment

Grouping Repetition Proximity Continuity Closure


Containment to frame or create a boundary
CONTAINMENT different visual elements TO FRAME OR CREATE A BOUNDARY

Frances Bacon

Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion 1, 2, 3


Containment
CONTAINMENT different visual elements

Alberto Giacometti

Jean Genet

oil

1954-55


Containment1
CONTAINMENT different visual elements

Robert Mapplethorpe Thomas in a Circle 1987 photograph


Grouping
GROUPING different visual elements

B

C

A

Gestalt Theory:

Our minds group objects by similar shapes and colors


Grouping1
GROUPING different visual elements

Gustav Klimt, Death and Life, 1915,

oil on canvas, 5’10”x6’6”


Repetition
REPETITION different visual elements

Repetition

occurs when

we use the

same visual

element or

effect over

and over

Rene Margritte Golconde, 1953


Proximity
PROXIMITY different visual elements

In design the distance between visual elements is called proximity

A

B


Proximity can create fusion
PROXIMITY can create FUSION different visual elements

FUSION = POSITIVE / NEGATIVE SPACE

FUSION WITH GRADATION OR TRANSPARENCY CAN DISSOLVE THE LINE BETWEENPOSITIVE / NEGATIVE SPACE


Proximity1
PROXIMITY different visual elements

Michelangelo Creation of Adam 1510


Continuity
CONTINUITY different visual elements

The fluid connection among compositional parts.

Skillful use of continuity can add visual movement to a design.


Closure the human mind will automatically connect visual fragments
CLOSURE: different visual elements THE HUMAN MIND WILL AUTOMATICALLY CONNECT VISUAL FRAGMENTS

Closure makes it possible to communicate using implication


Closure
CLOSURE different visual elements

Chuck Close, Self-Portrait , 2004-2005

oil on canvas 102 x 86”

David Hockney David Graves , 1982

Photos


Combining gestalt principles
COMBINING GESTALT PRINCIPLES different visual elements

MANY ARTISTS AND DESIGNERS COMBINE SOME OR ALL THE PRINCIPLES OF GESTALT IN A SINGLE COMPOSITION

Michael Anderson Portrait of David Lynch, Poster 60'' x 60'', 2002


Patterns and grids
PATTERNS AND GRIDS different visual elements

  • Pattern is created when any visual element is systematically repeated over an extended area.

  • Grid is created through a series of intersecting lines.


Pattern and grids
PATTERN AND GRIDS different visual elements

Faith Ringgold Who’s Bad 1988, Acrylic on canvas, fabric border, 74 x 69”


Patterns and grids1
PATTERNS AND GRIDS different visual elements

Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Death by Gun), 1990, Offset print on paper, 44 x 32 inches


Weight and gravity

The orientation of objects within an image can influence the visual weight of the piece.

WEIGHT AND GRAVITY

Bernice Abbot, Exchange Place,

New York, 1934, Photograph



Balance
BALANCE visual weight of the piece.

Refers to the equal distribution of weight or force among visual units


Balance1
BALANCE visual weight of the piece.

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE

The more common method is to

place objects of equal mass or

weight on each side of the

balancing fulcrum-point

CALLED FORMAL BALANCE

Symmetrical

Asymmetrical

fulcrum

fulcrum

ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE

Looks for unique relationships that appear at first glance as though it ought not to work, yet it through variety creates interest.

CALLED INFORMAL BALANCE


SYMMETRICAL BALANCE visual weight of the piece.Symmetrical balance, shapes or volumes are mirrored on either side of their vertical or horizontal axis

This is also referred to as

formal balance


Approximate symmetry
APPROXIMATE SYMMETRY visual weight of the piece.

Approximate Symmetry is created when similar imagery appears on either side of a central axis

Richard Estes

Downtown - Reflections, 1991

Color woodcut

16 1/4 x 10 "


Asymmetrical balance
ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE visual weight of the piece.

creates equilibrium between visual elements that are different in

size,

number,

weight, color

or

texture

This is also referred to as informal balance


Radial symmetry
RADIAL SYMMETRY visual weight of the piece.

This is a simple diagram and example of radial balance.


What type of balance is this? visual weight of the piece.

Linoleum Print


What type of balance is this? visual weight of the piece.

Jim Dine

Double Rober with Zipper, Print, 37 x 27 in


What type of balance is this? visual weight of the piece.

Richard Estes,

Paris Street Scene, 1972, oil on canvas, 40 x 60 in


What type of balance is this? visual weight of the piece.

Judy Chicago, Through the Flower, 1972 Drawing


Judy Chicago visual weight of the piece.

Rejection Quintet: Female Rejection Drawing, 1974 29” x 39”

Frida Kahlo Las Dos Fridas, 1939


Imbalance
IMBALANCE visual weight of the piece.

ERIC FISCHL

BARBEQUE, 1982, oil on canvas, 5’5” x 88’4”


Scale and proportion
SCALE AND PROPORTION visual weight of the piece.

Scale and Proportion strongly affect compositional balance and emotional impact

Proportion refers to the relative size of visual elements within an image

DI VINCI Vitruvian Man


RENE MAGREITTE visual weight of the piece.

Les Valeurs Personnelles (Personal Values) 1952


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