Person situation interaction an introduction to the social psychological perspective
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Person, situation, interaction an introduction to the social psychological perspective. Kuliah Psikologi Sosial I. Ross and McDougall: Two Early Versions of Social Psychology.

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Person situation interaction an introduction to the social psychological perspective

Person, situation, interactionan introduction to the social psychological perspective

KuliahPsikologiSosialI


Ross and mcdougall two early versions of social psychology
Ross and McDougall: Two Early Versions of Social Psychology

  • The year was 1908, a sociologist, Edward Ross and the other a psychologist, William McDougall, published their separate introductory textbooks in social psychology.

  • Both were concerned with understanding the relationships between person and society and therefore their field was called social psychology; however, each offered a different analysis.


Ross and mcdougall two early versions of social psychology1
Ross and McDougall: Two Early Versions of Social Psychology

  • Ross emphasized the important role that social and situational factors played in shapping the person;

  • McDougall stressed the role that person factors played in shaping social interaction and society.

  • According Ross: Human Behavior = f (situational factors)

  • According Behavior: Human Behavior = f (person factors)


Social psychology
Social Psychology

  • The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people.

  • Social psychology –the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people


Characteristics of social psychology
Characteristics of social psychology

  • The level of analysis is the individual in the social context (i.e., how an individual influences and is influenced by other individuals)

  • Social psychology studies individuals’ overt behaviors as well as their internal psychological states such emotions, motivations, and beliefs

  • Social psychologists use the scientific method to answer questions


Scientific description and explanation
Scientific Description and Explanation

  • Social Psychology, like any science, involves:

    • Description –careful and reliable observation

    • Explanation –development of theories that connect and organize observations


Scientific description and explanation1
Scientific Description and Explanation

  • Theories are scientific explanations that:

    • Connect and organize existing observations

    • Suggest fruitful paths for future research.


Major theoretical perspectives
Major Theoretical Perspectives

  • Sociocultural

  • Evolutionary

  • Social Learning

  • Social Cognitive


Sociocultural
Sociocultural

  • Socioculturalperspective –a theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in influences from larger social groups

    • E.g., norms within cultural groups, social class differences, nationality/ethnicity, fads


Evolutionary
Evolutionary

  • Evolutionary perspective –a theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce


Evolutionary1
Evolutionary

  • What drives social behavior?

    • Genetic predispositions inherited from our ancestors that promoted their survival and reproduction, such as:

      • The tendency to automatically recognize an angry face

      • The tendency for mothers to feel protective of their children


Social learning
Social Learning

  • Social learning perspective –a theoretical viewpoint that focuses on past learning experiences as determinants of a person’s social behaviors


Social learning1
Social Learning

  • What drives social behavior?

    • Classically conditioned preferences

      • For example, the feeling of fear at sight of person who hit you.

    • Habits rewarded by other people

      • For example, a boy who fights frequently after his father praised him for winning fight with neighborhood bully.


Social learning2
Social Learning

  • What drives social behavior?

    • Imitating the rewarded behavior of others

      • For example, buying a gun after seeing a movie in which the hero wins true love after shooting half the people in his girlfriend’s neighborhood.


Social cognitive
Social Cognitive

  • Social cognitiveperspective –a theoretical viewpoint that focuses on the mental processes involved in paying attention to, interpreting, and remembering social experiences

    • E.g., self-enhancing biases


The study of social behavior
The study of social behavior

  • Descriptive methods involve attempts to measure or record behaviors, thoughts or feelings in their natural state.

  • Experimental methods involve attempts to manipulate social processes by varying some aspect of the situation.


Descriptive methods
Descriptive Methods

Social psychologists use five major types of descriptive methods:

  • Naturalistic Observation

  • Case Studies

  • Archives

  • Surveys

  • Psychological Tests


Experiments
Experiments

  • An experiment is a research method in which the researcher sets out to systematically manipulate one source of influence while holding others constant.


Experiments1
Experiments

  • Independent variable –the variable manipulated by the experimenter

  • Dependent variable –the variable measured by the experimenter


Experiments2
Experiments

  • Social psychologists use two major types of experimental methods:

    • Laboratory experiments

    • Field experiments


Experiments3
Experiments

  • Advantages:

    • Allows cause-effect conclusions

    • Allows control of extraneous variables

  • Disadvantages:

    • Artificial situations may not represent relevant events as they naturally unfold (subjects’ responses may not be natural, since they know they are being observed).


Orientation in social psychology
Orientation in Social Psychology

  • The Reinforcement-Theory Orientation

  • The Field-Theoritical Orientation

  • The Cognitive Orientation

  • The Psychoanalytic Orientation

  • Role Theory


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