Mayan calendar
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Mayan calendar. Mária Hricová Bartolomejová Ladislav Hric Kolos 2011. 50 000-8 000 BC p assing through Bering strait - hunters PaleoIndi a n s : 3500 BC- agriculture , pottery Olm ecs : 1200-900 BC , Mexic an Bay , s tatutes , jagu a r, feather snake

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Mayan calendar

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Mayan calendar

Mayan calendar

Mária Hricová Bartolomejová

Ladislav Hric

Kolos 2011


History of mezoameric an indi ans

50 000-8 000 BC passingthrough Bering strait-hunters

PaleoIndians: 3500 BC-agriculture, pottery

Olmecs: 1200-900 BC, Mexican Bay, statutes, jaguar, feather snake

Zapotecs: till 300 BC, Oaxaka(wahaka),Monte Alban, agriculture,writ, hieroglyphs, system of dots andbars, calendar

Teotihuacan culture: 150 AD-pyramid of the Sun, 250-600 AD pyramid of the Moon, 50 km from Mexico City, Got of the feathersnake Quetzalcoatl

History of Mezoamerican Indians


Mayan calendar

Mayans: 250-900 AD, Yucatan, Guatemala, Belize, ancient towns: Palenque, Chichen Itza.

Feather snake, other Deities

Writing-hieroglyphs,mathematics, calendar, astronomy

Aztecs: military nationcoming from the north, 14 cent. AD, capital-Tenochtitlan-Venice of the New World,lake Texcoco(Teškoko) latest King Montezuma II

God of the Sun-Huicilopochtilo (vicilopočtlí)-sacrifying of human hearts, blood

God of the Feather snake Quetzalcoatl

calendar, mathematics astronomy, writingfrom Mayans


Mayan mat h emati cs

Mayan mathematics

  • Vigesimal number system based on 20

  • 0 – 19

  • Combination of dots andbars

  • 5 dots replaced by one bar

  • Mayans knew zero


Sumation by may as

sumationbyMayas


Chichen itz el caracol

Chichen Itzá-El Caracol

Observation: Sun, Venus, Moon, constallations, Milky way

Solar beamsthrough the slit on the walls

Predictions of the solar eclipses


Palenque pal a c e

Palenque-Palace

  • Kingand priests observed the Sunset from tower toward thepyramidof the Inscriptionson 21.December=winter solstice


Mayan calendar

Calendar Tzolkin (ritual)

  • Cycleof 260 daysorbital motion of Venus consisting of

  • 2 cycles:

  • A) 13 daysfrom 1 to 13 numbers of days

  • B) 20 days from 0 to 19

  • names of days – events from common life

  • 1.Imix –New yearafter 260 days


Ritu a l c alend a r tzolkin

Ritual calendar Tzolkin

  • Alternating of2 cycles13 days and20 days

  • 13x20=260 days

  • Beginning of Newyear=1.IMIX

  • 4 seasonal cycles=4x65 days


Mayan calendar

Ritual calendar Tzolkin


C alend a r haab civil n umbers of days names of months

Calendar Haab (civil)Numbers of days +names of months

  • 365 daysannual movement of Sun

  • 18 months each 20 days=0...19

  • Names of months-symbols from life

  • 18x20=360 +Wayeb (5 daysnonamed, unlucky=0...4)


C alend a r haab civil hieroglyfic expression

Calendar Haab (civil)hieroglyfic expression


C alend a r haab civil hieroglyfic expression1

Calendar Haab (civil)hieroglyfic expression

  • Last day of month=sitting day on the next month


C alend a r cy cle tzolkin haab

Calendar cycle (Tzolkin+Haab)

  • Tzolkin260 days

  • Haab365 days

  • Beginning of bothcyclesafter18 980 (divisible) days =

    = 52 Haab = 73 Tzolkin

    4 Ahaw, 8 Cumkuagain after 18 980 days

    Nowadays are used :Mexiko, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize


C alend a r cy cle tzolkin haab1

Calendar cycle (Tzolkin+Haab)


Expression of calendar cycle by gliphs

Expression of calendar cycle by gliphs


Mezoameric an indi a n s

Mezoamerican indians


Long count

Long Count

  • Recording of the historicalevents

  • 1Bak’tun = 20 K’atun = 144 000 days

  • 1 K’atun = 20 Tun = 7 200 days

  • 1 Tun = 18 Winal = 360 days (0...17)

  • 1 Winal = 20 K’in = 20 days (0...19)

  • 1 K’in = 1 day

  • Starting of mayan calendar on 13 (11).Aug.3114 BC=584 283JD = 0.0.0.0.0, 4 Ahau, 8 Cumcu

  • 12.19.17.17.18 = 12x144000+19x7200+17x360+17x20+18 = 1871278 days + 584283 JD = 2455561 days = 1.1.2011


Mayan expression of date

Mayan expression of date


Mayan expression of date1

Mayan expression of date

  • Kolos 1.12.2011=2 455 896 JD = 2455896 -584283 = 1871613 = 12x144000 + 19x7200 + 18x360 + 16x20+13= 12 Bak’tun 19 K’atun 18 Tun 16 Winal 13 K’in =12.19.18.16.13

  • 1871613/260, 4 Ahau, = 6 Eb (divisible)

  • 1871613/365, 8 Kumku = 1 Mak

  • Today by Mayans 12.19.18.16.13, 6Eb, 1 Mak


Mayan calendar

Calculation of the end of world

  • Mayan believed in 13 baktuns – 13 heavens which gradually developed

  • End of the count by mayancalendar

    13.0.0.0.0 = 13 baktun, 0 katun, 0 tun, 0 winal, 0 kin, 4 Ahau, 3 Kankin =

    13x144000 = 1872000 days + MB(584283JD) = 2456283JD = (21)23.dec.2012 (almanac)


What is happening in 2012

What is happening in 2012?

Transit of Venus 5.-6. Jun 2012 – Nordkap -expedition Norway

Solar eclipse 14-13.November 2012 Caerms – Queensland - Australia

SAS pri SAV Info www.astro.sas.sk


Chich n itz el castillo

ChichénItzá-ElCastillo

Mayan calendár-9platforms divided by 2=18 months

4 sides 91 steps + top platformn=365 days a year

Each fasade 52 plain stones=52 year cycle

Northern steps=lights and shadows show the optical efect of the waving snake on 21.3. and 23.9.

It takes 3 h 22 min


Mayan calendar

Thank

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