1920 s the great depression and the new deal
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1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal. The Second Industrial Revolution. Innovation U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world The twenties and the second revolution electricity replaces steam modern assembly introduced

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1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal

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1920 s the great depression and the new deal

1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal

The second industrial revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution

  • Innovation

  • U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world

  • The twenties and the second revolution

    • electricity replaces steam

    • modern assembly introduced

  • Airplanes – Charles Lindbergh – first solo flight over the Atlantic Ocean (1927)

Socially transforming innovations

Socially transforming innovations

  • electricity

    • electric lightbulb (1880's – 1924 the Phoebus cartel)

  • automobile

    • mass production – assembly line

    • Fordism

  • radio

Scientific advancements and conservatism

Scientific Advancements and Conservatism

  • The Scopes Trial (1925)

  • Eugenics – Immigration Act of 1924

The automobile industry

The Automobile Industry

  • Auto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertising

  • Auto industry fosters other businesses

  • Autos encourage suburban sprawl

Patterns of economic growth

Patterns of Economic Growth

  • Structural change

    • professional managers replace individual entrepreneurs

    • corporations become the dominant business form

  • Big business weakens regionalism, brings uniformity to America

Glenwood stove ad

Glenwood Stove Ad

Economic weaknesses

Economic Weaknesses

  • Railroads poorly managed

  • Coal displaced by petroleum

  • Farmers face decline in exports, prices

  • Growing disparity between income of laborers, middle-class managers

  • Middle class speculates with idle money

City life in the jazz age

City Life in the Jazz Age

  • Rapid increase in urban population

  • Skyscrapers symbolize the new mass culture

  • Communities of home, church, and school are absent in the cities

Women and the family

Women and the Family

  • Ongoing crusade for equal rights

  • “Flappers” seek individual freedom

  • Most women remain in domestic sphere

  • Discovery of adolescence

    • teenaged children no longer need to work

    • indulge their craving for excitement

The roaring twenties

The Roaring Twenties

  • Decade notable for obsessive interest in celebrities

  • Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment

The flowering of the arts

The Flowering of the Arts

  • Alienation from 20s’ mass culture

  • "Exiled" American writers put U.S. in forefront of world literature

    • T.S. Eliot

    • Ernest Hemingway

    • F. Scott Fitzgerald

  • Harlem Renaissance--African Americans prominent in music, poetry

The rural counterattack

The Rural Counterattack

  • Rural Americans identify urban culture with Communism, crime, immorality

  • Progressives attempt to force reform on the American people

    • upsurge of bigotry

    • an era of repression

The fear of radicalism

The Fear of Radicalism

  • 1919-- “Red Scare”

    • illegal roundups of innocent people

    • forcible deportation of aliens

    • terrorism against “radicals,” immigrants

  • 1927-- Sacco and Vanzetti executed



  • 1918--18th Amendment ratified

  • 1920--Volstead Act prohibits production, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages

  • Consumption of alcohol reduced

  • Prohibition resented in urban areas

  • Bootlegging becomes big business

  • 1933--18th amendment repealed

The ku klux klan

The Ku Klux Klan

  • 1925--Klan membership hits 5 million

  • Attack on urban culture, inhabitants

  • Defense of traditional rural values

  • Klan seeks to win U.S. by persuasion

  • Violence, internal corruption result in Klan’s virtual disappearance by 1930

Immigration restriction

Immigration Restriction

  • 1924--Congress restricts all immigration

  • Preferential quotas to northern Europeans

  • Mexican immigrants exempt from quota

The fundamentalist challenge

The Fundamentalist Challenge

  • Fundamentalism: stress on traditional Protestant orthodoxy, biblical literalism

  • 1925--Scopes Trial discredits fundamentalism among intellectuals

  • “Modernists” gain mainline churches

  • Fundamentalists strengthen grassroots appeal in new churches

Harding coolidge and hoover

Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover

  • Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values

  • Harding scandals break after his death

  • Coolidge represents America in his austerity and rectitude

  • Hoover represents the self-made man

The election of 1928

The Election of 1928

  • Democrat Al Smith carries urban vote

    • governor of New York

    • Roman Catholic

  • Republican Herbert Hoover wins race

    • Midwesterner

    • Protestant

  • Religion the campaign’s decisive issue

The great crash

The Great Crash

  • 1928--soaring stock prices attract individual, corporate investment

  • 1929--stock market crashes

    • directly affects 3 million

    • credit crunch stifles business

  • Businesses lay off workers

  • Demand for consumer goods declines

Effects of the depression

Effects of the Depression

  • Hardship affects all classes

  • The middle class loses belief in ever-increasing prosperity

  • Thousands of young homeless, jobless

Fighting the depression

Fighting the Depression

  • Republican attempts to overcome catastrophe flounder

  • Depression gives Democrats opportunity to regain power

Hoover and voluntarism

Hoover and Voluntarism

  • Hoover initially seeks solution through voluntary action, private charity

  • Eventually aids farmers and bankers

  • Resists Democratic efforts to give direct aid to the unemployed

    • perceived as indifferent to human suffering

    • programs seen as incompetent

Bank failures 1929 1933

Bank Failures, 1929-1933

The emergence of roosevelt

The Emergence of Roosevelt

  • Franklin Roosevelt

    • born to wealth and privilege

    • 1921--crippled by polio

    • 1928--elected governor of New York

    • talented politician

  • 1932--defeats Hoover with farmer- worker-immigrant-Catholic coalition

The hundred days

The Hundred Days

  • Banking system saved from collapse

  • Fifteen major laws provide relief

  • New Deal aims to reform and restore, not nationalize, the economy

Roosevelt and recovery

Roosevelt and Recovery

  • National Recovery Administration

    • industries formulate codes to eliminate cut-throat competition, ensure labor peace

    • codes favor big business, unenforceable

    • 1935--NRA ruled unconstitutional

  • Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933

    • farmers paid to take land out of cultivation

    • prices increase

    • sharecroppers, tenant farmers dispossessed

Roosevelt and relief

Roosevelt and Relief

  • 1933--Harry Hopkins placed in charge of RFC to direct aid to unemployed

  • 1933--Civilian Conservation Corps provides employment to young people

  • 1935--Works Progress Administration place unemployed on federal payroll

  • Programs never sufficiently funded

Roosevelt and reform

Roosevelt and Reform

  • 1933-34--focus on immediate problems

  • 1935--shift to permanent economic reform

Challenges to fdr

Challenges to FDR

  • Father Charles Coughlin advocates nationalizing banks, anti-Semitism

  • Francis Townsend calls for wealth redistribution from young to the elderly

  • Huey Long calls for redistribution of wealth by seizing private fortunes

Social security

Social Security

  • 1935--Social Security Act passed

  • Criticisms

    • too few people would collect pensions

    • unemployment package inadequate

  • Establishes pattern of government aid to poor, aged, handicapped

Labor legislation

Labor Legislation

  • 1935--Wagner Act

    • allows unions to organize

    • outlaws unfair labor practices

  • 1938--Fair Labor Standard Act

    • maximum hour

    • minimum wage

Impact of the new deal

Impact of the New Deal

  • Had a broad influence on the quality of life in the U.S. in the 1930s

  • Helps labor unions most

  • Helps women, minorities least

Rise of organized labor

Rise of Organized Labor

  • 1932--National Recovery Act spurs union organizers

  • Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) formed by John L. Lewis

  • CIO unionizes steel, auto industries

  • 1940--CIO membership hits 5 million, 28% of labor force unionized

The new deal record on help to minorities

The New Deal Record on Help to Minorities

  • Crop reduction program allows whites to fire or evict blacks, Hispanics

  • Public works programs help by providing employment

  • New Deal figures convince minorities that the government is on their side

  • 1934--Indian Reorganization Act gives American Indians greater control

Women at work

Women at Work

  • Position of women deteriorates in ‘30s

    • jobs lost at a faster rate than men

    • hardly any New Deal programs help

  • Progress in government

    • Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, the first woman cabinet member

    • women appointed to several other posts

    • Eleanor Roosevelt a model for activism

End of the new deal

End of the New Deal

  • 1936--New Deal peaks with Roosevelt’s reelection

  • Congress resists programs after 1936

The election of 1936

The Election of 1936

  • FDR’s campaign

    • attacks the rich

    • promises further reforms

    • defeats Republican Alf Landon

  • Democrats win lopsided majorities in both houses of Congress

  • FDR coalition: South, cities, labor, ethnic groups, African Americans, poor

The supreme court fight

The Supreme Court Fight

  • Supreme Court blocks several of FDR’s first-term programs

  • 1937--FDR seeks right to "pack" Court

  • Congressional protest forces retreat

  • FDR’s opponents emboldened

The new deal in decline

The New Deal in Decline

  • 1936--cutbacks for relief agencies

  • 1937--severe slump hits economy

  • Roosevelt blamed, resorts to huge government spending

  • 1938--Republican party revives

The new deal and american life

The New Deal and American Life

  • New Deal’s limitations

    • depression not ended

    • economic system not fundamentally altered

    • little done for those without political clout

  • Achievements

    • Social Security, the Wagner Act

    • political realignment of the 1930s

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