MEDIEVAL. PHILOSOPHY. PLAN. The character of the Medieval Philosophy The main features of the Middle Age philosophy The philosophers of that period. THE MIDDLE AGES.
St Augustine was born November 13, 354.
He died August 28, 430
He is considered the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.
St. Augustine was born at Tagaste, which is now Souk-Ahras, about 60 miles from Bona (ancient Hippo-Reguis)
His family was not rich, his father Patricius was one of the curiales of the city and still was a pagan.
Through the prayers of his holy mother and the marvelous preaching of St. Ambrose, Augustine finally became convinced that Christianity was the one true religion.
His mother, Monica, was a Berber
At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Thagaste noted for its pagan climate.
At Madaurus he became familiar with Latin literature.
Once, when very ill, he asked for baptism, but, all danger being soon passed, he deferred receiving the sacrament, yielding to a terrible ritual of times.
His association with "men of prayer" left three great ideas deeply engraved upon his soul: a Divine Providence, the future life with terrible sanctions, and, above all, Christ the Savior.
But a great intellectual and moral crisis stifled for a time all these Christian sentiments.
Patricius, proud of his son's success in the schools of Tagaste and Madaura determined to send him to Carthage to prepare for a forensic career.
Unfortunately, it required several months to collect the necessary means, and Augustine had to spend his sixteenth year at Tagaste in an idleness which was fatal to his virtue
The gave himself up to pleasure with all the vehemence of an ardent nature.
When he reached Carthage, towards the end of the year 370, every circumstance tended to draw him from his true course
The many seductions of the great city that was still half pagan, the licentiousness of other students, the theatres, the intoxication of his literary success, and a proud desire always to be first, even in evil
Before long he was obliged to confess to Monica that he had formed a sinful liaison with the person who bore him a son
His religious problem would come to end when he went to Italy under the influence of St. Ambrose.
Having visited Bishop Ambrose, the fascination of that saint's kindness induced him to become a regular attendant at his preaching's.
In 391 he was ordained a priest in Hippo Regius
He became a famous preacher and was noted for combating the Manichaean religion, to which he had formerly adhered.
In 396 he became Bishop of Hippo
Augustine worked tirelessly in trying to convince the people of Hippo, who were diverse racial and religious group, to convert to the Catholic faith.
He left his monastery, but continued to lead a monastic life in the Episcopal residence. He left a rule for his monastery that has led him to be designated the "patron saint of regular clergy", that is, clergy who live by a monastic rule.
Along with being a prominent figure in the religious spectrum, Augustine was also very influential in the history of education.
He introduced the theory of three different types of students, and instructed teachers to adapt their teaching styles to each student's individual learning style.
He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses when speaking to the students.
The mixed style includes complex and sometimes showy language to help students see the beautiful artistry of the subject they are studying.
The grand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style, but is exciting and heartfelt, with the purpose of igniting the same passion in the students' hearts.
St. Augustine was involved was his battle against Pelagianism.
The Pelagians denied original sin and the fall of humanity.
From his writings the controversies on grace proceed, and as supposed followers of Augustine, John Calvin and the Jansenists developed predestinarian theologies.
St Augustine of Hippo dealt with the heresies of the Donatists, Manichaeans.
Augustine himself was drawn to Manichaeism for nine years before his conversion.
But, as soon as he became a Christian, Augustine felt the need for protecting the Church from the Manichaean heresy.
The Donatists claimed to be the only faithful and pure Christians.
The unity of the Church was severely threatened.
Augustine took pains to address this problem from around 396
He distinguished between the gift of baptism itself and the efficacious use of it, by saying that the former exists everywhere, whether inside or outside of the Catholic Church.
His Confessions is considered a classic of Christian autobiography.
The work outlines Augustine's sinful youth and his conversion to Christianity.
St. Augustine writes about how much he regrets having led a sinful and immoral life. He discusses his regrets for following the Manichaean religion and believing in astrology
City of God a mammoth defense of Christianity against its pagan critics, and famous especially for the uniquely Christian view of history elaborated in its pages.
On the Trinity comes from his polemic writings.
On the Work of Monks, has been much used by monastics.
Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors, and the list of his works consists of more than a hundred separate titles.
They include apologetic works against the heresies of the Arians, Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians, texts on Christian doctrine, notably De doctrina Christiana (On Christian Doctrine), exegetical works such as commentaries on Book of Genesis, the Psalms and Paul's Letter to the Romans, many sermons and letters, and the Retractationes (Retractions), a review of his earlier works which he wrote near the end of his life
Augustine was a bishop, priest, and father who remains a central figure, both within Christianity and in the history of Western thought, and is considered by modern historian Thomas Cahill to be the first medieval man and the last classical man.
Bishop John Fisher of Rochester, a chief opponent of Luther, articulated an Augustinian view of grace and salvation consistent with Church doctrine, thus encompassing both Augustine’s soteriology and his teaching on the authority of and obedience to the Catholic Church.
Later, within the Roman Catholic Church, the writings of Cornelius Jansen, who claimed heavy influence from Augustine, would form the basis of the movement known as Jansenism.
Augustine was canonized by popular acclaim, and later recognized as a Doctor of the Church in 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII
His feast day is August 28, the day on which he died.
Shortly before Augustine's death, Roman Africa was overrun by the Vandals, a warlike tribe with Arian sympathies.
They had entered Africa at the instigation of Count Boniface, but soon turned to lawlessness, plundering private citizens and churches and killing many of the inhabitants.
The Vandals arrived in the spring of 430 to besiege Hippo and during that time, Augustine endured his final illness.
St. Thomas Aquinas (1224 – 1274)
Book III ScG
“Not how the world is, is the mystical, but that it is” (Ludwig Wittgenstein)