Measurement
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measurement . -a way to describe the world with numbers Answers questions: how much? How long? How far? Describe the amount; cost; distance; volume; mass; how fast; age Information described with numbers. Estimation . Helps you make a rough measurement of an object by guessing

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Measurement
measurement

  • -a way to describe the world with numbers

  • Answers questions: how much? How long? How far?

  • Describe the amount; cost; distance; volume; mass; how fast; age

  • Information described with numbers

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Estimation
Estimation

  • Helps you make a rough measurement of an object by guessing

  • Based on experience

  • Useful when you are in a hurry and exact data is NOT required

  • Improve with experience, practice, and understanding

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Using estimation
Using Estimation

  • You can compare an object whose length you don’t know to familiar objects

  • Often use the word “about”

  • Also used to check that an answer is reasonable

  • 1 m = about height of a door knob above the floor

  • 1 cm = about the width of your smallest finger

  • 1 mm = about the thickness of a dime

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Precision
Precision

  • Describes how carefully you make your measurement

  • The tool used determines the precision of the measurement

  • The more improved the tool the more précised the measurement

  • Can be reproduced or copied

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Accuracy
accuracy

  • Compares a measurement to the real value

  • The more accurate the measure, the closer it is to the true value

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Steps in rounding
Steps in Rounding

  • Not all measurements must be measured with great precision

  • 1. Look at the digit to the right of the place being rounded

    • The digit remains the same if the digit to the right is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4

    • Round up if the digit to the right is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9

      2. The remaining digits to the right of the rounding place are eliminated from the rounded answer if it is a decimal

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


SI

  • Means International System of Units

  • Established in 1960

  • General system for measurement

  • To avoid confusion, scientists use this common language

  • Worldwide standard of physical measurement for industry, science, and commerce

  • Uses units such as meters, cubic meter, grams, and Kelvin

  • Uses multiples of 10

  • To convert between units you multiply or divide by powers of 10

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Length
length

  • Distance between two points

  • Use the meter unit to measure

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Volume
volume

  • Amount of space an object occupies

  • Cubic meter (cm3) is used

  • Formula: Volume=length x width x height or V = l x w x h or V = (l)(w)(h)

  • Liquid volume is measured using liter

    • 1 cm3 = 1 mm of water

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


mass

  • Measures the amount of matter in an object

  • Uses kilogram unit

  • 1 L of water = 1 kg

  • Use a pan balance to measure

  • Pan balance compares an object to a known mass; it is balanced when the masses on both sides are equal

  • Depends on the amount of matter in an object

  • NEVER changes

  • Mass and weight ARE NOT the same

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Weight
Weight

  • Measurement of force

  • Depends on gravity

  • Can change depending on where the object is located

  • Spring scale measures weight; the reading on the scale depends on the force pulling the spring

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Temperature
temperature

  • Measures how hot or cold an object is

  • In SI it is measured with the Kelvin (K) scale

  • Measured also in Fahrenheit or Celsius

  • 273 K = 0°C = 32°F (freezing point of water)

  • 373 K = 100°C = 212°F (boiling point of water)

  • Zero Kelvin is the coldest temperature possible in nature

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Time

  • interval between two events

  • Measured in seconds (s) or hours (h)

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Rates
rates

  • A ratio of two measurements with different units

  • Example: speed-distance traveled in a given time

  • Measured in kilometers per hour (km/h)

  • Are combinations of units Examples: grains/liter; °C/hour

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Photographs
photographs

  • Shows an object exactly as it is

  • Movie show can be slowed down or speeded up

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Drawings
drawings

  • Can show important things and leave out unimportant details

  • Illustrations

  • Can show things we can’t photograph

  • Can show hidden things

  • sketches

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Tables
Tables

  • Organized way to collect and display data

  • Displays info in rows and columns so it’s easier to understand

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Graphs
graphs

  • Show the relationships between the data

  • Used to collect, organize and summarize data in a visual way

  • Can display one set of data or more

  • Three common types: -line graphs -bar graphs -circle graphs

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Line graph
Line graph

  • Has two variable (something that can change or vary)

  • Used to show the relationship between two variables

  • Both variables must be numbers

  • Has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis (bottom line)

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Bar graph
Bar Graph

  • Uses bars to show the relationships between variables

  • One variable MUST be a number; the other variable is divided into parts

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Circle graph
Circle Graph

  • Shows the parts of a whole

  • The circle represents the whole

  • Sections represents the parts

  • All the sections together equal 100 percent

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


Misleading graphs
Misleading Graphs

  • The way you mark the scale on a graph can create the wrong impression

  • A broken scale (on the vertical axis) is used for small but significant changes

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes


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