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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' measurement ' - nevaeh

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measurement

- -a way to describe the world with numbers
- Answers questions: how much? How long? How far?
- Describe the amount; cost; distance; volume; mass; how fast; age
- Information described with numbers

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Estimation

- Helps you make a rough measurement of an object by guessing
- Based on experience
- Useful when you are in a hurry and exact data is NOT required
- Improve with experience, practice, and understanding

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Using Estimation

- You can compare an object whose length you don’t know to familiar objects
- Often use the word “about”
- Also used to check that an answer is reasonable
- 1 m = about height of a door knob above the floor
- 1 cm = about the width of your smallest finger
- 1 mm = about the thickness of a dime

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Precision

- Describes how carefully you make your measurement
- The tool used determines the precision of the measurement
- The more improved the tool the more précised the measurement
- Can be reproduced or copied

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

accuracy

- Compares a measurement to the real value
- The more accurate the measure, the closer it is to the true value

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Steps in Rounding

- Not all measurements must be measured with great precision
- 1. Look at the digit to the right of the place being rounded
- The digit remains the same if the digit to the right is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4
- Round up if the digit to the right is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9
2. The remaining digits to the right of the rounding place are eliminated from the rounded answer if it is a decimal

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

SI

- Means International System of Units
- Established in 1960
- General system for measurement
- To avoid confusion, scientists use this common language
- Worldwide standard of physical measurement for industry, science, and commerce
- Uses units such as meters, cubic meter, grams, and Kelvin
- Uses multiples of 10
- To convert between units you multiply or divide by powers of 10

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

volume

- Amount of space an object occupies
- Cubic meter (cm3) is used
- Formula: Volume=length x width x height or V = l x w x h or V = (l)(w)(h)
- Liquid volume is measured using liter
- 1 cm3 = 1 mm of water

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

mass

- Measures the amount of matter in an object
- Uses kilogram unit
- 1 L of water = 1 kg
- Use a pan balance to measure
- Pan balance compares an object to a known mass; it is balanced when the masses on both sides are equal
- Depends on the amount of matter in an object
- NEVER changes
- Mass and weight ARE NOT the same

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Weight

- Measurement of force
- Depends on gravity
- Can change depending on where the object is located
- Spring scale measures weight; the reading on the scale depends on the force pulling the spring

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

temperature

- Measures how hot or cold an object is
- In SI it is measured with the Kelvin (K) scale
- Measured also in Fahrenheit or Celsius
- 273 K = 0°C = 32°F (freezing point of water)
- 373 K = 100°C = 212°F (boiling point of water)
- Zero Kelvin is the coldest temperature possible in nature

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

rates

- A ratio of two measurements with different units
- Example: speed-distance traveled in a given time
- Measured in kilometers per hour (km/h)
- Are combinations of units Examples: grains/liter; °C/hour

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

photographs

- Shows an object exactly as it is
- Movie show can be slowed down or speeded up

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

drawings

- Can show important things and leave out unimportant details
- Illustrations
- Can show things we can’t photograph
- Can show hidden things
- sketches

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Tables

- Organized way to collect and display data
- Displays info in rows and columns so it’s easier to understand

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

graphs

- Show the relationships between the data
- Used to collect, organize and summarize data in a visual way
- Can display one set of data or more
- Three common types: -line graphs -bar graphs -circle graphs

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Line graph

- Has two variable (something that can change or vary)
- Used to show the relationship between two variables
- Both variables must be numbers
- Has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis (bottom line)

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Bar Graph

- Uses bars to show the relationships between variables
- One variable MUST be a number; the other variable is divided into parts

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Circle Graph

- Shows the parts of a whole
- The circle represents the whole
- Sections represents the parts
- All the sections together equal 100 percent

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

Misleading Graphs

- The way you mark the scale on a graph can create the wrong impression
- A broken scale (on the vertical axis) is used for small but significant changes

Chapter 2 Vocabulary/Notes

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