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Biome Adaptations & Niches. The Greenhouse Effect. Sunlight. Some heat escapes into space. Sunlight at Different Latitudes Affects Climate. Greenhouse gases trap some heat. 90°N North Pole. Sunlight. Atmosphere. 66.5°N. Arctic circle. Some heat escapes into space. Sunlight.

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The Greenhouse

Effect

Sunlight

Some heat

escapes

into space

Sunlight at Different Latitudes

Affects Climate

Greenhouse

gases trap

some heat

90°N North Pole

Sunlight

Atmosphere

66.5°N

Arctic circle

Some heat

escapes

into space

Sunlight

Tropic of Cancer

Earth’s surface

23.5°N

Equator

Most direct sunlight

Heating of the

Earth’s Surface

Tropic of Capricorn

23.5°S

Sunlight

Arctic circle

66.5°S

Sunlight

90°S South Pole


Biotic abiotic factors in the ecosystem
Biotic & Abiotic Factors in the Ecosystem

  • Bio = LifeBiotic factors: Living things

  • A = Not Abiotic factors: Nonliving things

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

ECOSYSTEM


Habitat niche
Habitat & Niche

  • Habitat = The area where an organism lives. Its address.

  • Niche = The habitat and what the organism does in its habitat.

    • Its job (role).


An organism s niche includes
An organism’s niche includes:

  • The type of food it eats

  • How it gets the food

  • What eats the organism

  • When and how it reproduces

  • Physical conditions it needs to survive

  • Bullfrog example p.91


Can two different species share the same niche
Can two different species share the same niche?

No, because they are competing for the same resources, so one species will outcompete the other.

But, different species can occupy similar niches.

Three species of warblers and their niches



Can all kinds of organisms live in every biome
Can all kinds of organisms live in every biome?

NO!

Species are adapted to survive in certain biomes.

Adaptation: an inherited condition that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.


Adaptation think and discuss
Adaptation: Think and Discuss

  • Adaptation: Come up with a definition in your own words.

    • Discuss examples of adaptations with a partner.

  • What do you think the difference is between a structural adaptation and a behavioral adaptation is?

    • Discuss with a partner and think of examples.


Types of adaptations
Types of Adaptations

  • Structural Adaptation: physical features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce

  • Behavioral Adaptation: What an organism does (a behavior) to help it survive and reproduce

Ex: eyes, camouflage, fur, claws

Ex: traveling in herds for protection or hunting; producing a large number or small number of offspring





Grassland adaptations for plants and animals
Grassland: Adaptationsfor Plants and Animals?

  • Limiting Factors:

  • Inconsistent Rainfall

  • Temperature (hot, dry climate)

  • Frequent Fires


Grassland plant adaptations
Grassland Plant Adaptations

  • Roots: competing for space, nutrients and water

    (roots are extremely important)

  • Adapted to Fire: Roots are able to re-sprout after a fire event. Some plants require fire event to start seed germination.

  • Seeds spread by wind: Grasses have pollen that is spread by the wind, (flowers are not very showy/colorfulbecause they don’t need to attract pollinators like bees)

    Example:

  • Stinging nettle plant: Hollow, stinging hairs that inject histamine into grazing predators (produces a inflammatory response)


Grassland animal adaptations
Grassland Animal Adaptations

  • Open landscape and the widely spaced trees- perfect for large herds of grazing mammals such as the zebra and bison.

  • Prairie dogs, live in underground burrows that allow them to spend time in a cool environment rather than in the hot and windy conditions above ground.

  • Most animals are active only during the rainy season.


Rainforest adaptations for plants and animals
Rainforest: Adaptationsfor Plants and Animals?

Limiting Factors:

Plants: Available sunlight, prevention of water build-up

Animals: predators, competition with other species

Both: human activity (deforestation)


Rainforest plant adaptations
Rainforest Plant Adaptations

  • Height: Plants must grow tall to reach the sunlight (or grow on other trees=vines)

  • Leaves: Drip tips enable rain drops to run off quickly. Plants need to shed water to avoid growth of fungus and bacteria.

  • Fruit: Some plants depend on animals to spread the seeds of their fruit to distant parts of the forest

  • Adaptation Example: Epiphytes (non-parasitic) are plants that live on the surface of other plants, especially the trunk and branches. They grow on trees to take advantage of the sunlight in the canopy.


Rainforest animal adaptations
RainforestAnimal Adaptations

  • Camouflageto either hide from predators or hide from prey

    • Example: Stick insects, butterflies with wings that look like leaves, boa constrictor

  • Some animals became very specialized.

    • Parrots and toucans eat nuts so they developed big strong beaks to crack open the tough shells.


Temperate Deciduous Forest: Adaptations for Plants and Animals?

Limiting Factors:

Growing Seasons

(huge difference in temperature in winter and summer)


Temperate Deciduous Forest: Plant Adaptations

  • Many trees are deciduous (they drop their leaves

    in the autumn, and grow new ones in spring)

    Why would it be advantageous to do this?

    • Warm weather: Thin, broad, light-weight leaves that can capture a lot of sunlight to make a lot of food for the tree.

    • Cool Weather: when the weather gets cooler, the broad leaves cause too much water loss and can be weighed down by too much snow (or freeze), so the tree drops its leaves.

      Other Plant Adaptation Examples:

  • Wildflowers grow on forest floor early in the spring before trees leaf-out and shade the forest floor



Desert Biome: and hot summers Adaptations for Plants and Animals?

Limiting Factors:

Little Rainfall

Temperature variation in 1 day

(very hot during the day; very cold at night)


Desert plant adaptations
Desert: and hot summers Plant Adaptations

  • Two main adaptations:

    • Ability to collect and store water

    • Features that reduce water loss

      •  Extensive root system

      • The white hairy surface of the Old Man Cactus helps the plant reflect the hot desert sun (helps prevent evaporation of water)


Desert animal adaptations
Desert: and hot summers Animal Adaptations

  • Desert animals: adaptations to survive with little water and extreme temperatures

  • Adaptation Examples:

  • Desert rodents have special adaptations so their kidneys conserve water.

  • Nocturnal animals (active

    when it’s cooler at night)


Tundra biome adaptations for plants and animals
Tundra Biome: and hot summers Adaptations for Plants and Animals?

  • Limiting Factors:

  • Very cold temperatures

  • permafrost layer prevents water from seeping into soil;

  • little nutrients


Tundra adaptations
Tundra Adaptations and hot summers

  • The frigid cold and deep snow makes life in the tundra very difficult. 

    • Some animals have grown thick fur which turns white in the winter.

    • Others find a place to hibernate during the winter months.

  • Tundra plants are small (usually less than 12 inches tall) and low-growing due to lack of nutrients

  • Roots can’t penetrate permafrost layer

  • Plants are dark in color—some are even red,

    this helps them absorb solar heat.


Taiga Biome (Boreal Forest): and hot summers Adaptations for Plants and Animals?

Limiting Factors:

Cool temperature, short growing season


Taiga
Taiga and hot summers

Plant Adaptations:

  • Primarily evergreen trees

    • Cone shape of tree

    • Needles lose less water and shed snow easily

      Animal Adaptations:

  • Many mammals hibernate, and many of the birds migrate south.

  • Seasonal change in color of feathers or fur protects the animal from its predators


Chapparal and hot summers Biome: Adaptations for Plants and Animals?

Limiting Factors:

Long, dry Summers (most of rain falls during the winter)

Hot Temperatures

Occasional fires (in summer)


Chapparal temperate woodland

Nocturnal Rattle Snake: and hot summers

Chapparal/Temperate Woodland

Plant Adaptations:

  • Adapted to droughts in summer: waxy coatings, thicker cell layers, and recessed stomata

    Animal Adaptations:

  • Burrowing animals (escape heat)

  • Nocturnal animals (escape heat of day)


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