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3-D Sound and Spatial Audio. MUS_TECH 348. Environmental Acoustics and Perception. Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls. Schroeder’s work led to the understanding of the importance of side reflections and the decorrelation of the late field.

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Subjective preferences for concert halls
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

Schroeder’s work led to the understanding of the importance of side reflections and the decorrelation of the late field.

There are four significant dimensions in preference judgments. Two are represented here.

Numbers represent listeners and Capital letters are concert halls. Halls H, K and J are most preferred.


Subjective preferences for concert halls1
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

“Initial reverberation time” (T) is highly correlated to preference D1 and “definition” is negatively correlated. These are somewhat inversely related. Other factors with negative correlation are: “width of hall” (W) and “interaural coherence” (C).

People appear to prefer longer reverberation times, narrower halls and low interaural coherence.


Subjective preferences for concert halls2
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

  • Rasch and Plomp summarize studies that describe three subjective qualities:

    • Loudness---perceived loudness

    • Definition---ability to distinguish and recognize sounds, negatively correlated with indirect sound

    • Spaciousness---sense of being surrounded, positively correlated with indirect sound


Subjective preferences for concert halls3
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

Rasch and Plomp discuss how spaciousness, a desirable property, is captured in the ratio of indirect to direct sound.


Subjective preferences for concert halls4
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

Key questions arise about the relative importance of indirect sound coming from the side walls, ceiling and rear wall.


Subjective preferences for concert halls5
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

Rasch and Plomp report how synthetic indirect sound can be manipulated for experimental purposes.


Subjective preferences for concert halls6
Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

Ceiling, rear wall and floor reflections

Side wall reflections

The direction from which indirect sound arrives has a strong impact on the similarity of the energy arriving at the ears.


Subjective Preferences for Concert Halls

The subject quality of “spaciousness”:

  • Feeling surrounded in sound

  • Sound has no particular location

  • Sound occupies a volume of space

  • “Immersion”

Spaciousness depends on interaural incoherence.


Acoustic diffusion of indirect sound
Acoustic Diffusion of Indirect Sound

Concert hall design should attempt to create interaural incoherence in the indirect sound.

Good

Bad


Acoustic diffusion of indirect sound1
Acoustic Diffusion of Indirect Sound

terminology:

1D and 2D Quadradic

Residue Diffusers (QRDs) invented by Schroeder.


Cathedral concert hall theater sound

Cultural Context of Spaciousness

Cathedral / Concert Hall / Theater Sound

Altar / Stage / Screen

Spiritual / Emotional

World

Subjective

Music

Ambience


Artistic uses
Artistic Uses

  • Connection to magical/spiritual/emotional world

  • Give impression of space beyond the visual frame

  • Create separate acoustic space for music and listener’s emotional world


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