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The Brain. Origins and Diversity. The Generalised Vertebrate Brain. The Generalised Vertebrate Brain. All chordates: Front end of notochord thickened – Brain All vertebrates: Tripartite brain structure Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Most primitive condition:

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the brain

The Brain

Origins and Diversity

the generalised vertebrate brain1
The Generalised Vertebrate Brain
  • All chordates: Front end of notochord thickened – Brain
  • All vertebrates: Tripartite brain structure
    • Forebrain
    • Midbrain
    • Hindbrain
  • Most primitive condition:
    • F – Smell; M – Vision; H – Balance, vibration detection
petromyzontida lampreys1
Petromyzontida- Lampreys
  • Small cerebellum
    • simple mode of locomotion
  • Rest of hind-brain highly developed
    • To control powerful sucking structures – med. obl.
  • Pineal eye
    • Affect expansion of melanophores – skin colour
chondrichthyes e g catsharks1
Chondrichthyes – e.g. Catsharks
  • Pineal organ
    • Non-secretory, no visual function
  • Hypothalamus well-developed
    • Regulation of unconditioned reflexes
    • ‘Higher’ vertebrates
  • Large mid-brain
    • Vision
amphibia e g frogs
Amphibia – e.g. Frogs
  • Large optic lobes
  • Hippocampalcommissure
    • Link to reptiles, mammals
  • Pineal body
    • Vestigial in adults
  • Cerebellum v. small
    • Inactive animal, moves principally in 1 plane
reptilia e g lizards
Reptilia – e.g. Lizards
  • Small brain
    • 0.5% of body weight in lizards, several inches in dinosaurs weighing 20 tons
  • Cerebral hemispheres
    • Bigger than amphibians’
    • Olfactory bulbs – linked to Jacobson’s organs
aves e g pigeons
Aves – e.g. Pigeons
  • Second in brain size to Mammalia
  • Med. obl. ventral flexure
    • Similar to Reptilia
  • Cerebellum large
    • Flight, equilibrium control
aves e g pigeons1
Aves – e.g. Pigeons
  • Cerebral hemispheres large
    • Massive corpora striata
    • For control of reflex behaviours governing lives of birds
    • Diencephalon hidden
mammalia e g rabbits
Mammalia – e.g. Rabbits
  • Hemispheres united via corpus callosum
    • Commissural fibres
  • Cerebral hemispheres more extensively developed
  • Cerebellum large, complex
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