Checking sequence generation using state distinguishing subsequences
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Checking Sequence Generation Using State Distinguishing Subsequences. Adenilso Simão*, Alexandre Petrenko Centre de recherche informatique de Montreal (CRIM) *On a leave from the Universidade de São Paulo. A-MOST’09 @ Denver, April 1st, 2009. Outline. Problem statement Previous work

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Checking Sequence Generation Using State Distinguishing Subsequences

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Checking sequence generation using state distinguishing subsequences

Checking Sequence Generation Using State Distinguishing Subsequences

Adenilso Simão*, Alexandre Petrenko

Centre de recherche informatique de Montreal (CRIM)

*On a leave from the Universidade de São Paulo

A-MOST’09 @ Denver, April 1st, 2009


Outline

Outline

  • Problem statement

  • Previous work

  • Contribution of this work

  • Example

  • Conclusion


Problem statement

Problem Statement

  • Given a specification FSM with n states

    • Deterministic, Minimal, Complete

  • Given a black box implementation FSM in the fault domain

    • All FSMs with at most n states

  • Generate a checking sequence

    • To detect all non-equivalent implementations


Key issue

Key Issue

  • How to recognize states in the implementation

    • State distinguishing subsequences

      • Same input, but with different outputs

    • Different distinguishing capacities


Previous work

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Hennie, 1965

    • Seminal paper

    • Problem setting

    • Efficient method

      • Ad hoc

      • Distinguishing sequence


Previous work1

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Kohavi and Kohavi, 1968

    • Improves (Hennie, 1965)

    • Variable length distinguishing sequence

      • Prefix of a sistinguishing sequence


Previous work2

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Gonenc, 1970

    • A method for checking sequence generation

    • Graph based

    • Distinguishing sequences

    • Formalizes (Hennie, 1965)


Previous work3

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Boute, 1974

    • Distinguishing sets

      • Also known as adaptive distinguishing sequence

    • Generalizes (Hennie, 1965)


Previous work4

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Aho et al., 1991

    • Uses Unique Input/Output Sequences (UIOs)

      • Incomplete fault coverage

    • Optimization approach

      • Rural Chinese Postman Problem


Previous work5

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Ural et al., 1997

    • Builds on (Aho et al. 1991)

    • Improves (Gonenc, 1970)

    • State Recognition and Transition Verification

    • Uses distinguishing sequences


Previous work6

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Hierons and Ural, 2002

    • Improves (Ural et al. 1997)

    • Uses distinguishing sequences


Previous work7

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Serdar and Kuo-Chung, 2002

    • Improves (Gonenc, 1970)

    • Uses distinguishing sequences and UIOs


Previous work8

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Chen el al. 2005

    • Improves (Ural et al., 1997)

    • Avoids redundant transition verification


Previous work9

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Yalcin and Yenigun, 2006

    • Improves (Ural et al., 1997)

    • Uses distinguishing sequences and UIOs

  • Hierons and Ural, 2006

    • Improves (Hierons and Ural, 2002)

    • Uses distinguishing sequences


Previous work10

SK02

YY06

C+05

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

B74

H65

G70

KK68

SP08

U+97

HU06

HU02

A+91

SP09

Previous Work

  • Simao and Petrenko, 2008 (SP08)

    • Different approach for state recognition

      • Confirmed sets (of sequences)

    • Local optimization

      • Experimental results

    • Uses distinguishing sets


Contribution of this work

Contribution of this work

  • New possibilities for shortening checking sequences

    • Output-confirmed sequence

    • Convergence/divergence

  • Sequence confirmation and transition verification using confirmed sets

    • Even if distinguishing sequence or UIO is not applied in a given state


Contribution of this work1

Contribution of this work

  • Generation Method

    • Uses various distinguishing sequences

      • Distinguishing sets

      • UIOs

      • State identifier in a subset of states

    • Local optimization of transfer sequences

      • No global optimization

    • Overlapping


Example

Example


Example1

Example

  • Hierons and Ural, 2006

    • Checking sequence of length 64

  • Chen et al., 2005

    • Checking sequence of length 44

  • Simao and Petrenko, 2008

    • Checking sequence of length 43

  • Proposed method

    • Checking sequence of length 36


Other examples

Other Examples

  • Serdar and Kuo-chung, 2002

    • Checking sequence of length 80

    • Our method: 36

  • Yalcin and Yenigun, 2006

    • Checking sequence of length 26

    • Our method: 13


Future work

Future work

  • To integrate the proposed approach with other methods

  • To conduct experimental comparison

  • To find balance between local and global optimization


Thank you

Thank you!

Questions?

[email protected], [email protected]


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