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Preventing communicable diseases
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Preventing Communicable Diseases. Physical and Chemical Barriers. Skin- first line of defense Few pathogens can get through the first layers skin cells Tears and saliva- contain enzymes that destroy pathogens

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Preventing Communicable Diseases

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Preventing communicable diseases

Preventing Communicable Diseases

Physical and chemical barriers

Physical and Chemical Barriers

  • Skin- first line of defense

    • Few pathogens can get through the first layers skin cells

  • Tears and saliva- contain enzymes that destroy pathogens

  • Mucous membranes- produce mucous, a sticky substance that traps pathogens and helps dispose of them

    • Line mouth, nose, bronchial tubes, and others

Preventing communicable diseases

  • Cilia- hair-like projections that line parts of the respiratory system

    • Sweep mucus and pathogens to the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed out

  • Gastric Juice- destroys pathogens in the stomach

Immune system

Immune System

  • Network of cells, tissues, organs, and chemicals that fight of pathogens

    The Inflammatory Response

  • A reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection

  • Blood vessels around the injury or infection expand to allow more blood to the area

Preventing communicable diseases

  • Fluid and cells from the blood stream move into the area

Preventing communicable diseases

  • Swelling and pain results from the pressure of fluid on nerves

  • Phagocyte- white blood cell that attacks invading pathogens

    • Engulf pathogens and kill them with chemicals

  • Pus forms- dead white blood cells and damaged tissue

  • Specific defenses are activated

Specific defenses

Specific Defenses

  • Specific defenses react to an invasion as a result of the body’s ability to recognize certain pathogens and destroy them.

  • Immune response= immunity= the state of being protected against a particular disease.

  • Your immune system has a “memory”

Preventing communicable diseases

  • Specific types of white blood cells, T cells and B cells, have been activated by antigens and become memory cells

    • Antigen- found on the surfaces of pathogens and toxins

    • Capable of triggering an immune response

  • Memory cells circulate in blood stream and lymphatic system

Preventing communicable diseases

  • If memories cells recognize the antigens of a former invader certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

    • Antibodies- acts against a specific antigen, destroys or blocks pathogens from entering cells

    • Killer T cells- attack and destroy infected body cells

  • Ex: If you have had the measles or a vaccination your body remembers antigens

  • If measles enter again antibodies will attack immediately

Active immunity

Active Immunity

  • Occurs when your body develops antibodies for a specific pathogen

  • Natural active immunity- when you are exposed to invading pathogens

  • Artificial active immunity- antibodies develop in response to a vaccine

  • Vaccine- dead or weakened pathogens that are injected into the body to stimulate the immune response

Preventing communicable diseases

  • Active immunity can last a lifetime for some pathogens

  • Other pathogens require repeating immunizations (vaccine)

Passive immunity

Passive Immunity

  • Receiving antibodies from another person or animal

  • Passed from mother to child during pregnancy and nursing

  • From injection of antibodies that were produced by animal are human that is immune to disease.

  • This type of immunity is short lived

Care of the immune system

Care of the Immune System

  • Eat balanced diet

  • Drink water

  • Get plenty of rest

    • Fatigue reduces the effective ness of immune system

  • Manage stress

  • Avoid sharing

  • Keep immunizations up to date

  • Avoid sexual contact- some STDs destroy immune system

Four types of vaccines

Four types of Vaccines

  • Live-virus- from pathogens made in lab under conditions to cause the pathogen to lose some disease causing property

    • Measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox

  • Killed virus- from dead pathogens

    • Still stimulated immune response

    • Flu, hepatitis A, rabies, and cholera

Preventing communicable diseases

  • Toxoids- inactivated toxins from pathogens are used

    • Tetanus

  • New and second-generation-new types in development by scientist

Immunizations for all

Immunizations for All

  • A person who is vaccinated not only protects themselves but those around them

    • You will not spread the disease to other

  • Keep immunization up to date

    • Tetanus

    • Diphtheria

    • Pertussis (whooping cough)

    • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR)

    • Chicken pox

    • Human Papillomavirus HPV

  • Most high schools and colleges require some of these

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