Crew resource management
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Crew Resource Management. Presented by: Jim Kirby, ASI SLC FAA FSDO. Crew Resource Management:. “ The effective use of all available resources needed to complete a safe and efficient flight. ”. Objectives:. Human factors that cause accidents Critical success factors and elements

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Crew resource management

Crew Resource Management

Presented by:

Jim Kirby, ASI

SLC FAA FSDO


Crew resource management1

Crew Resource Management:

“The effective use of all available resources needed to complete a safe and efficient flight.”


Objectives

Objectives:

  • Human factors that cause accidents

  • Critical success factors and elements

  • Concepts and tools of aircrew coordination training (CRM/ACT)

We will explore:


Goals of crm

Goals of CRM:

CRM should provide pilot with:

  • KNOWLEDGEof concepts and procedures

  • ATTITUDEwhich recognizes the importance of good aircrew coordination to safety.

  • SKILLSto effect implementation of knowledge


Quick analysis of past mishaps

Quick analysis of past mishaps


Who s having accidents

Who’s having accidents?


Who s having accidents1

Who’s having accidents?


Typical aircrew errors

Typical aircrew errors

  • Loss of situational awareness

  • Violation of FAR

  • Departure from proven procedures

  • Poor judgment or decision making

  • Preoccupation with minor mechanical problems


Crew resource management

Typical aircrew errors

Inadequate leadership--Failing to:

  • Delegate tasks

  • Assign meaningful responsibilities

  • Set priorities

  • Lack of monitoring

  • Failure to use available information

  • Failure to communicate plans, problems, etc.


The aircrew coordination ac cycle

The Aircrew Coordination (AC) Cycle


Critical success elements

Critical Success Elements


Guiding principle

Guiding Principle:

“Everyone knows the regulations and procedures and will comply.”

(Fatal assumption?)


Depart from p r

Depart from P&R?

Would YOU . . .


Inadvertent departures

Inadvertent Departures

  • Attention

  • Memory

  • Attitude

  • Stress


Purposeful departures from p r

Purposeful Departures from P&R . . .

  • Mind traps

  • Disregard for “silly” rules

  • Pressure

  • Unwise commands


Positive flight crew characteristics

Positive Flight Crew Characteristics

  • In control of people and events or appear to be

  • Built-in calculated emotional distance

  • Mission oriented compartmentalizers

  • Systematic, methodical and predictable


Negative flight crew characteristics

Negative Flight Crew Characteristics

  • Not spontaneous

  • Can and do become complacent as we get better

  • Do meaningless “rituals” - a trap

  • Need “positive feedback”


Assertiveness

Assertiveness

  • Excessive professional courtesy

  • Halo effect

  • Copilot syndrome


Authority assertiveness

Authority/Assertiveness

Crew Incapacitation:

  • Obvious

  • Subtle

    “Two-Challenge Rule”


Conflict resolution techniques constructive patterns

Conflict Resolution Techniques: Constructive Patterns

  • Program time to discuss issues

  • Give expression to feelings

  • Replay other person's feelings

  • Define issues clearly

  • Discover where positions agree

  • Discover points of vulnerability

  • Determine depth of feelings

  • Offer self corrections

  • Recognize spontaneous humor, caring


Command authority

Command Authority

When there is disagreement:

“Conservative Response Rule”


Communications

Communications

Levels

  • Poor

  • Good

  • Effective


Process of communications

Process of communications


Barriers anything that distorts or interferes with communications

Noise, static

Multiple communications

Fatigue, stress

Distractions

Incomplete message

Ambiguous wording

Lack of credibility

Lack of rapport

Thing in personal terms

Jargon

Boring

Barriers. Anything that distorts or interferes with communications:


Was my message received

Was my message received?

Get feedback !

  • Deal with behavior, not person

  • Focus on ideas rather than giving advice

  • Focus on what is said rather than why

  • Include info that can be used, not everything you know


Hidden agenda

Hidden Agenda:

Withholding information for personal reasons

  • Insures loss of communications

  • Hard to detect

  • Taints judgment


Responsibility

Sender

Be clear & concise

Consider the environment

Address receiver’s needs

Receiver

Active listening

Interpreting

Evaluating

Responding

Responsibility!


Workload performance

Workload Performance


Classifications of workload

Classifications of Workload:

  • CRITICAL:A workload item that requires immediate attention to avert catastrophe.

  • IMPORTANT: A workload item that requires response as soon as possible, else it will become critical.

  • ROUTINE:An item encountered in normal flight, but if left unattended could become important.


Work load too high

Work load too high

  • Work faster, try to cram more into a shorter time frame.

  • Overall concept of flight breaks down. Overall view begins to narrow and become shorter

  • As pace quickens,attention become tunneled--pilot fixates on one item.

  • Revert to previous habits(good or bad)


Recognizing high workload

Recognizing High Workload

  • Individual workloadtolerance varies

  • Difficulty adheringto normal performance standards

  • Errors, erratic performance

  • Getting away fromgood fundamentalsof aircraft control

  • Uncertainty, indecision, discomfort

  • Losing normal scan, tunnel vision, fixation

  • Temporal distortion

  • Hesitant, confused speech


Protecting against high workload

Protecting against high workload

  • Intimate KNOWLEDGE of the business

  • Professional ATTITUDE

  • SKILL to fly without excessive attention to aircraft


Dealing with distractions

Dealing with distractions

  • Ignore:Good during critical phases of flight. Planning can reduce distractions.

  • Delay:If it can wait, then delay it (judgment comes in here!)

  • Delegate: Let someone else handle the distraction if it warranted.

  • Handle:Handle important distraction right away, but do not become fixated at the expense of other important functions.

  • Sterile cockpit:Reduces or eliminates distractions


Stress

Stress

  • Can result in:

    • Distress

    • Anxiety

    • Oppression

    • Affliction

  • Body signals:

    • Headaches

    • Heartburn

    • Cramps

    • Fatigue


Crew resource management

Stressors:

  • ENVIRONMENTAL

  • Cold/heat/light

  • Danger

  • Living conditions

  • PERSONAL

  • INTRAPERSONAL conflict

  • Hereditary traits

  • INTERPERSONAL

  • Personality conflict

  • Mistrust

  • Lack of support

  • Poor communication

  • PRIVATE LIFE


Stressors

Stressors

  • Family problems

  • Financial concerns

  • Health care

  • Pressure from friends

  • Time for personal interests

  • ORGANIZATIONAL

  • Role conflict

  • Job ambiguity

  • Underwork/overwork

  • changes

  • Travel

  • People management

  • Organizational structure


Frequent causes for a failing aviator

Frequent Causes for a failing aviator

  • Recently engaged

  • Marital problems

  • Divorce

  • Relationship difficulties

  • Major career decision/change

  • Trouble with superiors or peers


Managing stress

Managing stress

  • Organize yourself

  • Change your environment

  • Build up your strength

  • Listen to your body

  • Learn to relax

  • Find ways to laugh each day

  • Develop a supportive network around you


Crew resource management

Available Resources:

People, equipment and information that can contribute to a successful flight and the prevention of error during the flight.


Internal resources

Internal Resources:

  • Pilot

  • Copilot

  • Crew

  • Equipment knowledge


External resources

External Resources:

  • Other pilots via Pireps & communications

  • ATC

  • Tech reps & maintenance personnel

  • FSS

  • Time (think ahead, space out tasks)


Crew resource management

Synergy:

The combined action of separate resources has greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects when they are assimilated by the flight crew.


Crew resource management

The accurate perception of the factors affecting the aircraft and the crew, including knowing what has happened in the past, what’s going on now, and how these affect what might happen in the future.

Situational Awareness:


Maintaining good situational awareness

Critical Success Factors:

Knowledge (plus experience/training)

Attitude

Personal health

Crew coordination

Inquiry

Maintaining good situational awareness:


Causes of loss of situational awareness

Fixation

Ambiguity

Unresolved disagreement or discrepancy

Complacency

Euphoria

Gut feeling

Distraction

Causes of loss of situational awareness:


Minimizing loss of situational awareness

Minimizing loss of situational awareness

  • Illness?

  • Medication?

  • Stress?

  • Alcohol?

  • Fatigue?

  • Eating?


The i m safe checklist

The“I’M SAFE”checklist

IILLNESS?

MMEDICATION?

SSTRESS?

AALCOHOL?

FFATIGUE?

EEATING?


Decision making

Decision Making

A multitude of factors:

  • Knowledge

  • Training

  • Experience

  • Attitudes


Hazardous attitudes

Hazardous Attitudes

  • Anti-authority

  • Impulsivity

  • Invulnerability

  • Macho

  • Resignation

  • Get There-itis


Risk evaluation

Risk Evaluation

AESOP MODEL

Aircraft

Environment

Situation

Personnel

Operations


Crew resource management

It’s break time!

Please be back in 10 minutes


Operating strategy

Operating Strategy =

Aircrew Cycle

+

Duties

+

SCOP


Crew resource management

SCOP

A specific technique for effecting good situational awareness, decision making and communications


Standard cockpit operating procedure scop

Standard Cockpit Operating Procedure (SCOP)

  • Who flies

  • Who briefs what and when

  • Callouts: who makes them and when

  • Who does miscellaneous procedures

  • Checklist use (style and procedure)


Briefings pic briefs sic

Briefings: PIC briefs SIC

  • Filed flight plan

  • Weather conditions

  • Itinerary, delays, stopovers, etc.

  • PIC/SIC, PF/PNF assignments

  • Question SIC about:

    • Fuel loaded

    • Preflight inspection

    • Load manifest, W&B

    • Answer questions


Briefings before takeoff briefing

Briefings: Before takeoff briefing

  • Initial heading & altitude

  • Review critical “V” speeds

  • Advise of malfunctions & emergency action

  • Backup power settings

  • Standard Callouts

  • Any Questions?


Briefings approach briefing

Briefings: Approach briefing

  • Name & location of IAP

  • Field elevation

  • Final approach crs. description

  • Name of final approach fix

  • DH/MDA timing

  • Missed approach procedure—at least first heading and altitude

  • Any questions?


Checklists

Checklists

  • Ensure proper configuration of aircraft

  • Basis for procedural standardization

  • A collection of task lists


Normal checklist

Normal Checklist:

  • Verifies aircraft configuration

  • Provides sequential framework

  • Allows for cross-checking

  • Dictates crew duties

  • Enhances the team concept

  • Quality control tool

  • Reduces reliance on memory

  • Helps prevent exceeding aircraft limitations


Excuses

Excuses!

I don’t use checklists because—

  • They take too much time . . .

  • I know my airplane so well . . .

  • They are too much work . . .

  • I fly a simple airplane . . .


Checklist philosophy

Checklist philosophy

Methods of Use:

  • Call-do-response (“cookbook”)

  • Challenge-Verification-Response (checklist backs up flow patterns)


Redundancy

Redundancy

  • Memory Vs. Checklist

  • Inter-crew checking

  • Once isn’t enough!


Checklist pitfalls

Checklist Pitfalls

  • Memory only - no checklist backups

  • Checklist pulled by habit, but not used

  • Checklist left entirely up to the PNF, w/o checking for action or response from PF (all talk-no action!)

  • ”Shortcutting”-Calling several items at once, failing to verify action for each

  • Failure to declare completion of checklist


Performance factors

Performance factors

  • Perception

  • CRM

  • Interruptions and distractions

  • Maintenance

  • Checklist ambiguity


Normal checklists cues

Normal ChecklistsCues

  • Preflight inspection

  • Before Starting Engines

  • Taxi

  • Before Takeoff

  • Lineup

  • After takeoff/climb

  • Cruise

  • Descent

  • In-range

  • Descent

  • Approach

  • Before Landing

  • After landing

  • Shutdown


Checklist design

  • Subdivide long lists into usable chunks

  • Make a checklist for each phase of flight

    • Preflight

    • Before starting

    • Taxi

    • Before takeoff

    • Climb

    • Cruise

    • In range

    • Descent

    • Approach

    • Before landing

    • After landing

    • Shutdown

Checklist Design


Order of items

Order of Items

  • System sequence

  • Motor/eye coordination Vs. checklist order

  • Flow patterns

  • Association: location & sequence


Sequence of very critical items

Sequence of Very Critical Items

  • Locate at beginning of checklist—get attention before distractions . . .

  • Duplicate critical “killer” items for emphasis (use sparingly . . .)


Design use guidelines

Design/Use Guidelines

  • Respond with item status

  • Touch the items

  • Subdivide long checklists

  • Sequence checklists to match flow patterns

  • Sequence checklists with other internal/external events

  • Critical items up front w/repetition

  • Call checklists completed

  • Build in backups

  • Awareness & training


Crew resource management

Checklist discipline:

“There is nothing more worthless than sky above you, airspeed lost, runway behind you, fuel in the truck and checklists disregarded!”


Standard callouts

Standard Callouts

  • An integral part of the SCOP

  • Help establish effective communications

  • Assist in situational awareness

  • A habit that increases the good effects of redundancy


Crew resource management2

Crew Resource Management

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