Chapter 15
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Chapter 15. Ionic Bonding. Valence Electrons. Do the electron configuration for the following elements Li Be B O F Ne. Valence Electrons. Now look at the outermost electrons by looking at the last s and p orbital Circle and count these electrons These are the valence electrons.

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Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

Ionic Bonding


Valence electrons

Valence Electrons

  • Do the electron configuration for the following elements

  • Li

  • Be

  • B

  • O

  • F

  • Ne


Valence electrons1

Valence Electrons

  • Now look at the outermost electrons by looking at the last s and p orbital

  • Circle and count these electrons

  • These are the valence electrons


Valence electrons2

Valence electrons

  • Valence electrons are in the highest energy level of an element’s atom

  • Valence electrons are the same as group # (roman numeral) for the group A representative elements

  • Valence electrons are usually the only electrons used in chemical bonds

  • We use valence e- to write Lewis Dot Structures


Valence electrons cont

Valence electrons (cont.)

A. Lewis Dot Structure

Ex: bromine

Br


Electron configurations for cations anions

Electron configurations for cations & anions

A. Octet Rule: when forming compounds atoms want to have 8 electrons (s2p6) like the noble gases (except He)


Chapter 15

Cations(metals)tend to lose electrons,positively charged ion

+

lose 1 e-

Na

(atom)

Na

(cation)

1s22s22p63s1

1s22s22p6

octet

Using the Dot Structure

+

lose 1 e-

Na

(cation)

Na

(neutral atom)

2+

Mg

(cation)

lose 2 e-

Mg

(neutral atom)


Chapter 15

Anions(Nonmetals) have negative charges because they gain electrons

-

gain 1 e-

Cl

(atom)

Cl

(chloride ion)

1s22s22p63s23p5

1s22s22p63s23p6

valence

octet

Using the Dot Structure

-

gain 1 e-

Cl

(chloride ion)

Cl

(neutral atom)

2-

gain 2e-

O

(oxide ion)

O

(neutral atom)


Practice

Practice

N

3-

gain 3e-

N

(nitride ion)

+

Lose 1 e-

Li

Li

-

I

(iodide ion)

gain 1 e-

I

+2

Ca

Lose 2e-

Ca


Ionic compound

Ionic Compound

1. ionic compounds form crystals

2. high melting and boiling points

3. hard and brittle

4. conduct electricity when dissolved in water or melted

  • Composed of a metal (cation) and nonmetal (anion)

  • Ionic bond – oppositely charged ions attract

  • Electrically neutral (+) = (-)

A. Properties


Ionic bonds

Ionic Bonds

Na

+1

-1

1. Sodium and Chlorine

-

donates e-

Na+

Cl

Cl

+

NaCl

+1

-2

2. Potassium and Oxygen

donates e-

K

K+

-2

O

+

O

donates e-

K+

K

K2O


Chapter 15

AlBr3

+3

-1

3. Aluminum and Bromine

-

Br

Br

Al

-

Al+3

Br

Br

+

-

Br

Br

+2

-3

4. Magnesium and Nitrogen

Mg+2

-3

Mg

N

N

Mg+2

-3

+

N

Mg

Mg+2

N

Mg

Mg3N2


Output example

OUTPUT EXAMPLE:

1. Potassium & Fluorine

+1

-1

-

+

F

K

F

+

K

KF


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