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Civil Rights Top Ten. Honors American History Mrs. Cavell. Jim Crow Laws: State and local laws passed to separate the races in public facilities (schools, parks, hospitals, etc.) Segregation: Term used to describe this system of separation

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Civil rights top ten

Civil Rights Top Ten

Honors American History

Mrs. Cavell


1 jim crow laws

Jim Crow Laws: State and local laws passed to separate the races in public facilities (schools, parks, hospitals, etc.)

Segregation: Term used to describe this system of separation

Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court case that legalized segregation as long as the facilities were “equal” (1896)

Jim Crow

1. Jim Crow Laws


2 naacp

NAACP: (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Formed in 1909 by WEB DuBois

NAACP GOAL: Full equality-nothing less! Despite an era of progressive reforms, very little support for this goal for even the reformers

WEB DuBOIS

2. NAACP


3 the end of legalized segregation

Brown v. Board of Education: Case led by Thurgood Marshall (eventually became first African-American SC justice) struck down segregation on the grounds that “separate facilities were inherently unequal”. Marshall had won 29 cases regarding civil rights prior to this. He was key legal defender of the civil rights movement.

Reaction: This affected 21 states and reaction was mixed…some states would be no problem and others (Miss/Georgia) complete resistance

Thurgood Marshall

3. The end of legalized segregation


Brown v board
Brown v. Board

  • This case was based on the complaint of Mr. Oliver Brown, whose nine-year-old daughter Linda had to travel 21 blocks to attend an African-American school instead of an all-white school four blocks from home.

  • Thurgood Marshall wrote a brilliant brief explaining why segregation was unequal and won a unanimous decision.

  • Congress and the President (Eisenhower) did little initially to enforce this verdict.


4 the little rock nine

In 1957, nine African-American students volunteered to integrate Little Rock Central High

Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to turn them away

President Eisenhower put the National Guard under federal control and had soldiers protect the students while at school

Faubus eventually shut down Central High rather than allow integration

It was a victory that the students were able to attend an all-white school

Little Rock Nine

4. The Little Rock Nine


5 montgomery bus boycott

On Dec. 1, 1955, Rosa Parks boarded a bus in Montgomery, Alabama in the “colored section”. As the bus filled up, Parks was asked to move for a white man and refused. This sparked a bus boycott that lasted 381 days.

Parks had been an NAACP officer that had been quietly but persistently fighting for civil rights

RESULT: Martin Luther King became the voice of the civil rights movement and SC outlawed segregation on buses

Rosa Parks

5. Montgomery Bus Boycott


6 mlk

MLK’s civil rights strategy was called “soul force” (non-violent resistance)

SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference: Group organized by King to use churches throughout the South to organize protests whose goal was to unite all African-Americans of all ages against second-class status

SNCC: An African-American protest group that originated on college campuses

MLK

6. MLK


Birmingham

SNCC organized a freedom ride into Birmingham, Alabama with the promise of police protection secured through President Kennedy.

When the riders arrived…no police, just an angry mob that beat them up and set the bus on fire (with people inside!)

This gave the civil rights movement the media boost it needed. News coverage denounced the beatings and showed whites abusing their power.

RESULT: Desegregation of all bus stations, waiting rooms, restrooms, and lunch counters.

Birmingham


Mfdp and selma campaign
MFDP and Selma Campaign the promise of police protection secured through President Kennedy.

  • In 1964 a new political party emerged designed to help elect people in favor of civil rights legislation. This party was open to anyone, regardless of race. It was the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.

  • In the summer of 1965, SCLC and SNCC wanted to help register voters in Selma, Alabama. They were also arrested and brutally attacked. MLK launched a peaceful march from Selma to Montgomery (state capital) to protest these beatings. A war-like scene emerged complete with tear gas and beatings.

  • RESULT: President Johnson swiftly passed the VOTING RIGHTS ACT of 1965 which eliminated the literacy test and employed federal examiners to register voters.


6 mlk s non violent strategies

Sit-ins: the promise of police protection secured through President Kennedy. Protest strategies that were designed to get service in segregated public facilities. (EX: Sitting in at a whites only lunch counter)

Freedom Riders: Individuals who risked beatings or death to travel across the South in buses to protest segregation

March on Washington: August 28, 1963: 250,000 people peacefully assembled in the nations capital to listen to MLK address them with his now-famous “I have a dream” speech. President Kennedy vowed to make equal rights a priority, but was assassinated on November 22, 1963. President Johnson carried on JFK’s work.

Sit-ins:

6. MLK’s Non-Violent Strategies


7 civil rights acts of 1964 and 1968
7. Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 the promise of police protection secured through President Kennedy.

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964: Prohibits discrimination because of race, gender, religion, or national origin (IE: All citizens had the rights to eat, shop, go the bathroom and go to school where they chose to)

  • Civil Rights Act of 1968: A law that bans discrimination in housing (You can live where you want to)


7 malcolm x and nation of islam

Born Malcolm Little, Malcolm X became a follower of the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) while in prison

He believed in armed self-defense and a separation from whites (No brotherhood with whites)

Later in his life he journeyed to Mecca and changed his philosophy to embrace equality among all races but still felt that armed self-defense was justified

Malcolm X

7. Malcolm X and Nation of Islam


7 black power and black panthers
7. Black Power and Black Panthers Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) while in prison

  • Black Power: The rallying cry of new leaders in the SNCC movement whose goals now included African-Americans leading their organizations and setting the civil rights agenda (no more working with whites)

  • Black Panthers: Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in 1966, this party advocated full-employment, decent housing, and military-exemption for African-Americans. “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun.”


Black panthers

Logo Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) while in prison

Members

Black Panthers


8 mlk assassination

MLK objected to the radical changes the equality movement was headed and hoped to spread his idea of non-violence to poor in northern cities.

On April 3, 1968, King addressed a crowd that he may not see a world with equality, but he was not in fear…some speculate he knew death was near

On April 4, 1968, MLK stepped out onto a hotel balcony and was shot in the neck by James Earl Ray

MLK’s Funeral and James Earl Ray

8. MLK Assassination


9 reaction to the assassination and legacy
9. Reaction to the Assassination and Legacy was headed and hoped to spread his idea of non-violence to poor in northern cities.

  • The reaction to MLK’s death sparked worst rioting in US history

  • Robert Kennedy pled with American people to come together as King would have wanted

  • OUTCOMES: African-Americans took pride in their heritage and colleges began offering classes on Black Studies. African-Americans also became more visible in the media.

  • Affirmative Action: Programs that involve making special efforts to hire or enroll people who have been discriminated against in the past


President Barack Obama…What do you think MLK would have done had he lived to see this?

2011


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