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Chapter 4: Fingerprints. History. First fingerprints were discovered in clay pottery during the T’ang Dynasty Dactyloscopy : study of fingerprints. FINGERPRINTS. History. Alphonse Bertillion First systematic attempt at personal identification Bertillion system

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History
History

  • First fingerprints were discovered in clay pottery during the T’ang Dynasty

  • Dactyloscopy: study of fingerprints

FINGERPRINTS


History1
History

  • Alphonse Bertillion

    • First systematic attempt at personal identification

      Bertillion system

    • Relied on a detailed description of the subject

    • Combined with full length and profile photographs

    • System of precise body measurements called anthropometry

FINGERPRINTS


History2
History

  • Francis Galton

    • 1892

    • Classic textbook finger prints

  • At Galton’s insistence

    • British government adopted fingerprinting

    • Supplement to the bertillion system.

  • Next step

    • Creation of classification systems

    • Capable of filing many thousands of prints

    • Logical and searchable sequence.

FINGERPRINTS


Why fingerprints
WHY FINGERPRINTS?

  • The most positive means for identifying people.

    • Because no two fingers with identical ridge characteristics

  • Fingerprints form on a person before birth and remain unchanged until the body decomposes after death.

Every fingerprint is unique!


What is a fingerprint
WHAT IS A FINGERPRINT?

A fingerprint is a pattern comprised of ridges and valleys.

A Ridge – is a high.

A Valley – is a depression or low.

Friction ridges are also found on our palms, feet and toes.


Valley

Ridge


Fingerprint principles
Fingerprint Principles

  • Individual characteristic

    • Because no two fingers with identical ridge characteristics

  • Remains unchanged during an individual’s lifetime

  • General ridge patterns that permit systematic classification

FINGERPRINTS


Anatomy of fingerprints
Anatomy of Fingerprints

  • Epidermis

    • Outer layer of the skin

  • Dermis

    • Inner layer of the skin

  • Dermal papillae

    • Layer of cells between the epidermis and dermis

    • Responsible for determining the form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin


Anatomy of fingerprints1
Anatomy of fingerprints

  • Dermal papillae develop in the human fetus @ 3 months

  • Enlarge during growth


Anatomy of fingerprints2
Anatomy of fingerprints

  • Finger touches a surface

    • Perspiration

    • Oils from hairy portions of the body

    • Transferred onto surface

  • Leaves fingerprint

FINGERPRINTS


Fingerprint patterns
Fingerprint patterns

  • All fingerprints

    • divided into three classes

    • Loops

    • Arches

    • whorls

      L.A.W.

FINGERPRINTS


Loops
Loops

  • A loop must have one or more ridges entering from one side of the print, re-curving, and exiting from the same side.

    • If the loop opens toward the little finger, it is called an ulnar loop.

    • If the loop opens toward the thumb, it is called a radial loop.


Loops1
Loops

Figure4.3  Loop pattern.


Loops2
Loops

  • Must have one delta

FINGERPRINTS



Whorls1
Whorls

  • Divided into four groups

    • Plain

    • Central pocket loop

    • Double loop

    • Accidental

  • All have a minimum of two deltas

FINGERPRINTS


Whorls2
Whorls

  • Plain whorl and central pocket loop have at least one ridge that makes a complete circuit

  • Double loop: two loops combined into one fingerprint

  • Accidental

    • Two or more patterns

    • Or pattern not covered by the other categories

FINGERPRINTS



Arches1
Arches

  • Least common of general patterns

    • Plain arches

    • Tented arches

    • Arches do not have deltas, or cores

FINGERPRINTS


Plain arches
Plain Arches

  • Ridges entering from one side of the print

  • Rising and falling

  • Exiting on the opposite side

  • Like a wave


Tented arches
Tented Arches

  • Sharp up-thrust or spike

  • The ridges meet at an angle that is less than 90 degrees

FINGERPRINTS



FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION

How are fingerprints compared?

Fingerprints are compared by noting the ridge characteristics on two prints to determine whether or not they match.

An identification is established when a number of these characteristics occupy the same relative position on the two prints.


Fingerprints and a fingerprint classification schema involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and (f) double loop. Critical points in a fingerprint,called core and delta, are marked as squares and triangles.


FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Henry Classification system

    • Developed a method of classifying fingerprints.

    • modified by the FBI that allowed all set of 10 fingerprints in the world to be divided into 1024 groups.

    • Table 4.2 Frequency of fingerprints

    • Loops Whorls Arches

    • Ulnar radial plain other plain tented

    • 60% 5% 20% 10% 4% 1%

    • loops = 65% whorl=30% arches =5%


Ending Ridge involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

Eye or Enclosure

Trifurcation

“T” Junction

Ridge Crossing

Bifurcationor fork

ShortRidge

Row of Dots

Dot

RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS (Minutiae)

COMMON

OCCASIONAL

RARE


Ridge Characteristics involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

Use these characteristics as points of identification when comparing fingerprint samples. The more points you can find in common, the better the match!


11 involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

1

10

2

9

3

8

4

5

7

6

RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS MAGNIFIED

Points 1, 2, 4, 5 are Ending Ridges

Points 3 and 9 are Dots

Points 8, 10, 11 are Bifurcations

Point 6 is an Enclosure

(ISLAND)

Point 7 Short Ridge


Review of fingerprint types
Review of fingerprint types involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and


Arches2

Spike or “tent” involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

Plain Arch

Ridges enter on one side and

exit on the other side.

Tented Arches

Similar to the plain arch,

but has a spike in the center.

Arches

Arches are the simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other. No deltas are present.


Loops3
Loops involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

Loops must have one delta and one or more ridges that enter and leave on the same side. These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius and ulna bones.

Delta

Ulnar Loop (Right Thumb)

Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone.

Radial Loop (Right Thumb)

Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone.

NOTE: On the left hand, a loop that opens to the left would be an ulnar loop, while one that opens to the right would be a radial loop.


Whorls3
Whorls involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas. If a print has more than two deltas, it is most likely an accidental.

Central Pocket Whorl

Plain Whorl

Draw a line between the two deltas in the plain and central pocket whorls. If some of the curved ridges touch the line, it is a plain whorl. If none of the center core touches the line, it is a central pocket whorl.


Whorls part 2

Double Loop Whorl involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

Accidental Whorl

Double loop whorls are made up of any two loops combined into one print.

Accidental whorls contain two or more patterns (not including the plain arch), or does not clearly fall under any of the other categories.

Delta

Delta

Whorls – Part 2


Identify each fingerprint pattern
Identify each fingerprint pattern. involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

?

A

B

Right Hand

Left Hand

C

Right Hand

E

D

Right Hand

Left Hand


Presenting fingerprints as evidence
Presenting Fingerprints as Evidence involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • No legal requirements on the number of points but generally the courts will accept 8 to 12 points of similarity as sufficient proof.

  • Fingerprints do not lie but human error might account to wrongful convictions.


Types of prints visible latent prints

Types of Prints involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and Visible & Latent Prints


Latent prints
Latent Prints involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Invisible fingerprints

  • Finger touches a surface

  • Body perspiration and/or oils present

  • Transferred to that surface

  • Leaves impression

FINGERPRINTS


Visible prints
Visible Prints involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Fingers touch a surface after contact with a colored material such as blood, paint, grease, or ink

  • Plastic prints: left on a soft material, such as putty, wax, soap, or dust

  • Little problem to the investigator

FINGERPRINTS


Visualizing latent prints

Visualizing Latent Prints involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and


Detecting prints
Detecting Prints involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Hard nonabsorbent surfaces

    • Glass, mirror, tile, painted wood

    • Developed by the application of a powder

    • Can be lifted by clear tape & examined

  • Porous surfaces

    • Papers, cardboard, and cloth, styrofoam, leather

    • Require treatment with a chemical

FINGERPRINTS


Ninhydrin
Ninhydrin involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Reacts with amino acids left by finger

  • Produces a orange /purple color

    (Ruhemann’s purple)

  • Commonly used with paper and porous surfaces


Iodine fuming
Iodine Fuming involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Heat iodine crystals (produces iodine vapors)

  • Combine with latent prints (react w/ oils on finger) to make them visible

    • Iodine prints are not permanent

    • Will fade

    • Must photograph the prints immediately

    • Works best on porous paper.


Silver nitrate
Silver nitrate involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Reacts with the salt left from sweat in a dried print .

  • AgNO3 + NaClAgCl

    *converts to dark Ag2O

  • Turns prints brownish-purple


Super glue
Super Glue involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and ®

  • Most widely used method to develop latent prints

  • Best used on nonporous surfaces such as metals, glass, adhesive tapes and plastic.

  • Leaves a white, permanent impression

  • can be treated with powders or fluorescent dyes to create a sharper contrast.

  • 98 to 99 percent cyanoacrylate ester

    Super Glue fuming

    • Fuming chamber (for up to six hours)

FINGERPRINTS


Reflected uv imaging system
Reflected UV Imaging System involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • RUlVIS

  • No chemicals or powder

  • Locate With light source

  • investigator develops the print in the most appropriate fashion

FINGERPRINTS


Powders
Powders involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Powders, available in a variety of colors, can be applied with a brush or magnetic wand, and adhere to perspiration and/or body oils of the print.


Other methods
Other methods involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Photograph


Digital imaging afis
Digital Imaging- AFIS involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Digital image: of fingers are pressed against a glass plate and scanned to a screen.

    ** can be enhanced,

    compared and sent to

    AFIS within minutes.

    AFIS can compare hundreds of thousands of

    prints in less than a second.

FINGERPRINTS


Digital imagining iafis
Digital Imagining: IAFIS involving six categories: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) right loop, (d) left loop, (e) whorl, and

  • Replaced tradition method of fingerprinting.

  • Contains more than 55 million computerized fingerprint records of known criminals.

  • Live Scan electronic fingerprints devices transmit prints @ the time of arrest or booking to a central IAFIS database to provide immediate positive identification, check for with any suspect latent prints on file, and provide criminal history.


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