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Philip Morris TFPP Program. Top Ten Ways to Increase Returns, Improve Yield, and Maintain Quality. Gary Palmer. Number 1. Start with good transplants Start seed in mid-March to early April in a greenhouse with adequate controls or well designed float bed. Use disease prevention measures

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Number 1
Number 1 Maintain Quality

  • Start with good transplants

    • Start seed in mid-March to early April in a greenhouse with adequate controls or well designed float bed.

    • Use disease prevention measures

      • Terramaster (pythium)

      • Dithane (Target Spot)

    • Avoid heat or cold stress


Number 2
Number 2 Maintain Quality

  • Set on time

    • May 10 to May 20 is a prime time in most areas

      • The best place for transplants is in the ground notin the float bed.

    • Rainy periods usually occur after May 20 and can run into the later part of June.

      • A wet start can drastically reduce yield potential


Number 3
Number 3 Maintain Quality

  • Use a variety that has a good disease package

    Black Shank Non-Black Shank

    • KT 204 HB04P

    • KT 200 R7-12

    • TN 90

      • NC 6

  • Avoid high management varieties, those with little or no disease resistance or quality issues.

    • KY 14 XL8

    • Hybrid 403

    • N 126

    • TN 86

  • Use only seed from a screen seed source


  • Number 4
    Number 4 Maintain Quality

    • Choose fields with low disease history, good drainage and low weed pressure.

      • Establish a good rotation system

      • Keep good records of cropping history and disease, insect and weed pressure.

      • Consider no-till to reduce soil loss and to utilize more ground in rotation plans.

      • Use appropriate weed control measures


    Number 5
    Number 5 Maintain Quality

    • Control Insects with appropriate chemicals

      • Use aphid control chemicals in the transplant water.

        • Admire Pro or Platinum

          • Offer season long control

          • Reducing trips across the field

          • Minimize severe aphid outbreaks

          • Potentially reduce yield losses

      • Don’t forget cutworms, hornworms & budworms

        • Orthene (acephate) in transplant

          water

        • Field sprays as needed

          • (many options)

            (Orthene, Denim, Assail, Lepinox,

            Tracer, etc.)

      • Avoid chemicals with residue

        problems

        • Endosulfan (Golden Leaf)


    Number 6

    Fertilize according to soil test Maintain Quality

    Consider

    Cropping history

    Nitrogen needs

    Drainage

    Use optimum levels and avoid excessive rates

    To reduce potential quality issues and accumulation of nitrosamines

    Optimum levels

    Soil Level of N Lbs. N/ac

    High 150-175

    Medium 200-225

    Low 225-250

    Number 6


    Number 7
    Number 7 Maintain Quality

    • Be proactive for disease management

      • Use prevention were possible

        • Blue mold infection can precede disease symptoms by several days

        • Severe outbreaks require more expensive measures and may leave undesirable residue on the tobacco

        • Select the right variety for the disease pressure expected or where a possibility of disease outbreak is high.


    Number 8
    Number 8 Maintain Quality

    • Top on time and use a combination approach for sucker control

      • Topping height may vary depending on the specific company needs

      • Early topping tends to improve yield and quality

        • Bud topping

          • Reduces yield in earlier maturing varieties

        • Late topping

          • Increases sucker control problems

          • Increases disease incidence

          • Reduces yield & quality

      • MH at 1½ gal/a + Prime+ or Butralin at ½ gal/a

        • Use coarse nozzles to apply


    Number 9
    Number 9 Maintain Quality

    • Harvest mature tobacco

      • Too early(2 - 3 weeks after topping)

        • Reduced yield

        • Immature

          • Green cure possible

      • Too Late (5 weeks or more after topping)

        • Dead ripe

        • More disease incidence

        • Poor quality

          • Flashy

          • Slick

          • Undesirable

    Yield

    Quality


    Number 10
    Number 10 Maintain Quality

    • Properly cure and store tobacco prior to marketing

      • Avoid quick cures

        • Regulate ventilator

          doors

      • Avoid houseburn

        • Increase ventilation

      • Avoid conditions that

        would elevate

        nitrosamines


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