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Hewlett-Packard V2600. EDSAC, 1949 , Кембридж. Производительность вычислительных систем. 2×10 -6. 1.8×10 -9. время такта 2 микросекунды . время такта 1.8 наносекунды . можно было выполнить 2* n операций за 18* n миллисекунд.

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Производительность вычислительных систем

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Hewlett-Packard V2600

EDSAC, 1949 ,

210-6

1.810-9

2

1.8

2*n 18*n

77

100


MIPS

:

MIPS , MIPS ,

MIPS

MIPS .


MIPS , .

MIPS

MIPS


, . , Whetstone-

IBM RS

6000 MIPS

H. J. Curnow B. A. Wichmann, (NationalPhysicalLaboratory)

, WhetstoneAlgol, .

Whetstone

1976

1 RS/6000 MIPS 1,6 VAX 11/780 MIPS

Whetstone- 1976 1988 . 20%.


Whetstone , ( , , IF, ..). , Whetstone- ( "" - 12 899), Whetstone-p . KWIPS (KiloWhetstoneInstructionsPerSecond) MWIPS (MegaWhetstoneInstructionsPerSecond). MIPS, : Whetstone- - , . . MWIPS .

  • Whetstone : 70% Fortran- VAX 11/785 ( BSD 4.3 Fortran) ""

Whetstone- 1976 1988 . 20%.


  • , Whetstone, , : - Whetstone, . , , Whetstone .

  • Whetstone ( Whetstone C- 2 ), : Whetstone - .

  • . Whetstone , p pp ( , - ), . Whetstone (, MORS SPARC Whetstone-).

  • "" Whetstone - Pascal- (Pascal Evaluation Suite), (British Standards Institution - Quality Assurance, BSI-QAS). ( , Fortran) -. , 1988 . Pascal- Whetstone, , , .


WhetStone( 97 ):

Athlon 1333, FSB266, L1 cache 128Kb ,L2 cache 256Kb

Loop content Result MFLOPS MOPS Seconds

N1 floating point -1.12475025653839110 252.511 0.543

N2 floating point -1.12274754047393800 220.889 4.344

N3 if then else 1.00000000000000000 246.024 3.004

N4 fixed point 12.00000000000000000 427.670 5.259

N5 sin,cos etc. 0.49904659390449524 24.459 24.287

N6 floating point 0.99999988079071045 108.557 35.477

N7 assignments 3.00000000000000000 99.233 13.297

N8 exp,sqrt etc. 0.75110864639282227 10.080 26.350

MWIPS 634.322 112.561

, :

AM386/40 Pentium PentiumPentProPentPro

VAX MIPS VAX MIPS /386 VAX MIPS /386

Qbasic 0.133 0.87 6.5 1.03 7.7

Visual Basic 3 0.490 3.09 6.3 7.05 14.5

Visual Basic 4 0.704 4.94 7.0 9.54 13.6

C++ no opt 4.200 36.60 8.7 129 30.7

C++ in-line 7.400 95.80 12.9 315 42.6


ReinholdWeicker

1984

VAX 11/780 DEC

12 , . Dhrystone , (, , , . .).

1 MIPS

Dhrystone

101 Pascal- 103 C-

100

53% ,

32% ,

15% .

1MIPS = 1757 Dhrystone


Dhrystone SiSoftwareSandra . , . , , . - .


SiSoftware Sandra


FLOPS, 92

FLOPS

, . .

, FLOPS, , . , FLOPS , , .

, , , , . FLOPS .


:

, Cray Research . , , .

MFLOPS , .

, 100% , 100% .

, "" "" .


- -, , . (). 14 , 24 .

, .


    • AMDAthlon 64 2,211 (2003) 8[10]

    • AMDAthlon 64 X2 4200+ 2,2 (2006) 13.2

    • AMDAMD ATHLON II X4 645 3.1 (2010) 38.44

    • IntelCore 2 Duo 2,4 (2006) 19,2[11]

    • IntelCore 2 Quad Q8300 2,5 40[12]

    • IntelCore i7-975 XE 3,33 (2009) 53.28[13]

    • CPU AMD Phenom II X6 1100T BlackEdition (HDE00ZF) 3.3 / 3+6/4000 Socket AM3 60.0953[14]


FLOPS


www.spec.org

SPEC 1988

Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation

.

  • CPU2006 - ( CPU95 CPU2000);

  • JVM2008 - Java-;

  • HPC2002- HPC-: Retired in June 2007. HPC2002 is no longer being distributed and no additional result submissions are being accepted.

  • SFS2008 - (NFS);

  • SPECWEB2009 - HTTP-;


CPU2006

CPU2006 - , Open Systems Group (OSG) System Performance Evaluation Corp. (SPEC) () .

CPU2006 - CINT2006

CFP2006 .

"" , "" (component-level), . CINT2006 CFP2006 , - , . , .


CINT2000 11 , , (252.eon) ++.


CFP2000 14 , 6 Fortran 77, 4 Fortran 90 4 ++.


CPU2006 MFLOPS MIPS. SPEC. "" "" (referencesystem). SunUltra 5/10 ( UltraSPARC II 300 MHz).

CPU2000 (48 ).

CFP2000 CINT2000 , , , - "" (Base Peak) "" (SpeedMetrics ThroughputMetrics).

SPECint2000, , :

SPECint2000 = RefTime / MeasuredTime,

RefTime - , MeasuredTime - . , - .

SPECint_rate2000 :

SPECint_rate2000 = N * (RefTime / MeasuredTime) * (60*60*24/RefJobTime) ,

N - () , 60*60*24 - , RefJobTime 9600.


SPECint_2006(Speed) :

SPECfp_2006 :

ASUS TS700-E6 (Z8PE-D12X) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 39.0 42.0

ASUS RS700-E6 server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 39.0 42.1

ASUS RS700D-E6 (Z8NH-D12) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 39.0 41.9

ASUS RS520-E6 (Z8NR-D12) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 39.0 42.0

ASUS RS500-E6 (Z8NR-D12) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 39.0 42.0

ASUS TS700-E6 (Z8PE-D12X) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 44.9 48.1

ASUS RS700-E6 server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 45.2 48.0

ASUS RS700D-E6 (Z8NH-D12) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 45.1 48.0

ASUS RS520-E6 (Z8NR-D12) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 44.9 47.7

ASUS RS500-E6 (Z8NR-D12) server system (Intel Xeon X5680) 44.9 47.7


LINPACK

LINPACK - - . www.linpack.org

LINPACK . 100100 ( 10001000) , . , LINPACK, . LINPACK , . www.blas.org

BLAS (BasicLinearAlgebraSubprograms). , BLAS SAXPY ( ) SDOT ( ). , . MFLOPS.

LINPACK MFLOPS .


TOP500


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