Al qaeda
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Al-Qaeda. Islamic fundamentalism is a construction based on the proclaimed primacy of religious identity Political Islamism is a political ideology, based on Islamic fundamentalism, which aims to seize power in the nation-state

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Al-Qaeda

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Al qaeda

Al-Qaeda


Al qaeda

  • Islamic fundamentalism is a construction based on the proclaimed primacy of religious identity

  • Political Islamism is a political ideology, based on Islamic fundamentalism, which aims to seize power in the nation-state

  • The movement symbolically represented by Al-Qaeda is a different kind of movement  It is based on Islamic fundamentalism but is explicitly global. 


February 23rd 1998

February 23rd 1998

  • Osama bin Laden establishes the “World Islamic Front for the Jihad Against Jews and the Crusaders” a fundamentalist, terrorist, global network

  • Origins can be traced to the CIA-financed training camps for anti-Soviet mujahedeen in Pakistan today extends to at least 65 countries and numerous autonomous groups 


The values and goals

The values and goals: 

  • The building of the umma

  • Muslim societies should be ruled by shari'a law (The Taliban regime came closest to the Islamic ideals espoused by bin Laden)

  • Bin Laden and al-Qaeda are not preoccupied by the kind of society they want to build ("pragmatic militants")


The values and goals1

The values and goals: 

  • The defense of Islam starts with the defense of the holy sites in Saudi Arabia and Jerusalem

  • Martyrdom

  • No negotiation, no surrender, no way out


Islamic global terror networks rely on two main tactics of action

Islamic global terror networks rely on two main tactics of action:

1. Terror-->the expectation is that over time the institutions of democratic states crumble under the collective fear (al-Qaeda aims at the heart of Westerners)

2. Media politics-->transforming consciousness is the ultimate goal (al-Qaeda aims at the mind oppressed Muslims)


The dream

The dream

  • They hope for: An unreasonable response from the West-->inflame the rotten world-->new society from the ashes


Who are the adversaries

Who are the adversaries? 

  • The political regimes of Muslim countries (pawns of the Crusaders)

  • Zionists 

  • The U.S. (and other Western powers)


Six stages of development

Six stages of development

1. Resistance to Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979)

2. Militants return home and engage in political-military battles against their own national governments

3. First direct attacks by al-Qaeda (1993 in NYC)

4. Concentrated on supporting movements in countries where a power base could be achieved (Sudan/ Afghanistan)

5. al-Qaeda moves toward open confrontation with the U.S. (embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, USS Cole bombing in Aden, 9/11)

6. U.S. destroys the Taliban regime, obliterates the basis of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, bin-Laden killed, many associated networks emerge around the world (inc in the U.S.)


Who are the members of al qaeda

Who are the members of al-Qaeda?

  • They come from a number of ethnic and national groups (very few Palestinians)

  • The nucleus was formed in camps

  • Young (20s and 30s), male

  • The core group of al-Qaeda come from wealthy families


Who are the members of al qaeda1

Who are the members of al-Qaeda?

  • Many are highly educated professionals (the core group of 9/11 attackers were engineering students)

  • The military commanders mostly trained in national military academies 


The structure

The structure 

  • Networking is critical-->core leadership but no control center

  • Cells are largely autonomous


Al qaeda

  • al-Qaeda provides training and indoctrination 

  • Fighting principle: string as hard as you can, anytime and anywhere you can, all Westerners are potential targets, as are symbolic points of connection between Muslim societies and non-believers (airports, multi-national corporate facilities, tourism centers)

  • Nation-specific organizations fight against the states that oppress true-Muslims in their own countries


Establishing new networks

Establishing new networks

  • bin Laden helped establish most active network in the world today: Jamaah Islamiyah in South East Asia 


Chechnya

Chechnya

  • A secular, ethnic-nationalist struggle against Russia becomes an Islamic struggle

  • Rebels receive training and money from al-Qaeda 

  • For bin Laden, the Chechen struggle was simply a continuation of the fight against Russians in Afghanistan

  • The dual character of local struggles and global networking is the essence of al-Qaeda's strategy


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