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ITC. Krzysztof Badyda INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. http://www.itc.pw.edu.pl. Some Aspects of Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in Power Generation Industry (Round Table discussion).

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Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Krzysztof Badyda

INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING

WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

http://www.itc.pw.edu.pl

Some Aspects of Energy Efficiency

and Energy Conservation

in Power Generation Industry

(Round Table discussion)

Conference on the Future of Energy in Enlarged Europe: Perspectives for R&D Co-operation

A contribution within the context of the Weimar Triangle

October 7- 8th, 2004, Warsaw


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

General information

The Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) is the largest academic school of technology in Poland, employing 2.000 professors. The number of students is 30.000, most of them study full-time. There are 17 faculties covering almost all fields of science and technology.

The Institute of Heat Engineering is part of the Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE - MEiL) of the WUT.

Staff of the Institute - 130 persons, incl. 30 doctor students, and 25 technical and administration staff.


Institute of heat engineering structure

ITC

Institute of Heat Engineering: structure

Management:Prof. Janusz Lewandowski

Prof. Jerzy Banaszek - didactics and research

Dr Tomasz Wiśniewski - technical aspects,

organisation and finance

Division of Refrigeration, Machines and

Equipment for Chemical and Food Industry -Prof. Jerzy Sado

Division of Power Engineering -Prof. Andrzej Miller

Division of Thermodynamics -Prof. Roman Domański

Division of Aircraft Engines -Prof. Piotr Wolański

Division of Pumps,

Drivers and Power Stations -Prof. Waldemar Jędral


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Division of Power Engineering: specialities

Scientific fundamentals of machine design and operation.

Apparatus and their sets in power engineering.

Development of methods for mathematical modelling and simulation of performance under design, off-design and transient conditions.

  • Objects

  • Utility and captive power plants

  • Steam and gas turbines

  • Combined and cogeneration sets

  • Digital simulators of power plant equipment – turbosets, boilers

  • New applications of distributed control systems

  • Clean coal and environment protection technologies

  • Hydrogen and fuel cells


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Division of Power Engineering:

partners/customers

  • Transition Technologies (TT) – a company specialised in implementation of new computer technologies in power plant engineering

  • Alstom Power Poland – steam and gas turbine manufacturer

  • Vattenfall – owner of the largest combined heat and power plant in Europe (Siekierki – 620 MWel and 2000 MWth)

  • BOT Group – owner of the largest power plant in Poland (capacity of 12370 MWel)

  • PKN ORLEN – owner of the largest oil refining and petrochemical plant in Poland, and of the largest captive CHP plant in Poland

  • Power plants and combined heat and power plants (utility and captive, including the distributed power sector)


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Division of Power Engineering:

international partners/co-operation

  • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan

  • San Diego State University, California, USA

  • Kharkov University of Technology, Ukraine

  • Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MEI), Russia

  • University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

  • International Industrial Assessment Center DOE,Philadelphia USA (energy audits in industry)


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

Division of Power Engineering:

Typical projects in the area of energy saving

(realised in co-operation with industry)

ITC

  • Modernisation of turbines: adapting of flow systems to off-design operating conditions

  • Modernisation of boilers: adapting to off-design operating conditions and/or increase of efficiency

  • Energy audits for power and other industrial plants, proposals of production process modernisation or modification

  • Modelling of energy and technology systems, process losses determination

  • Optimisation of load distribution in combined heat and power plants using automatic model construction (DCS)

  • New applications of distributed control systems in power generation industry


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Energy audit

at Siekierki Combined Heat and Power Plant

Sankey diagram of energy flows for part of the Siekierki CHP plant in typical conditions


Boiler driving with neural networks in po aniec power plant

ITC

Boiler driving with neural networksin Połaniec Power Plant

Primary steam

Combustion

temperature

Temperatures

and their

differences

Secondary

steam

PW1...6

Concentration L,RCO

O2

NOx

OFA

WM1...6

MW1...6

Secondary air

Outlet gases

temperature L,R

Total air


Optimisation results

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Optimisation results

  • Reduction of NOx emission by approx. 15-25%

  • Efficiency increased by approx. 0.2 - 0.7%

  • Elimination of CO

  • Number of flammable parts not increased

  • Economic operation of actuators

  • Safe switching over (supervision system)

  • Improved system reliability


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

gas

gas

gas

gas

gas

gas

gas

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

B1

B4

B2

B3

B5

B7

B6

12.8 MPa

TG1

TG2

TG3

TG4

TG5

3.4 MPa

1.8 MPa

0.75 MPa

0.12 MPa

ITC

Optimisation of load distribution at a CHP plant

Simplified heat diagram


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Optimisation results

Nel

[MW]

t [h]

t [h]

Generated electric power

Relative obtainable fuel savings


Hydrogen turbine project we net co operation with japan

h

= 84,5%

c

h

= 66,4%

R

h

= 66,4%

HHV

h

= 77,2%

LHV

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Hydrogen Turbine ProjectWE-NET – co-operation with Japan

Modified New Rankine Cycle (MNRC)

proposal of ITC

O2

H2

O2

H2

O2

H2

HPT

MPT

LPT


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Pressurised fluidised bed boiler

installation diagram


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Power generation industry in Poland

Installed capacity: 35000 MW.

Electricity generation of distributed power generation sector: very low – installed capacity (end of 2002 – excl. industrial power): wind power 31 MW, biogas 42 MW, small water plants 492 MW. Contribution to the energy production: 0.2%.

Needed intensive development of electricity sources using renewable energy.

Relatively high rate of electricity production combined with heat generation.

Combined heat and power plant capacity: domination of large plants.

Domination of coal in the energy sector.


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Cogeneration electricity production rate in Poland from 1985 to 2002

Average for EC („old” 15) in 2000: about 10%.


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Rate of combined electricity production 2001

(selected „old” and „new” EC members)


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Domination of coal

in the electricity production in Poland

Hard coal and lignite: 93% !!


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Energy efficiency and energy savings:

proposals of co-operation

  • Research on advanced power systems with use of hydrogen, esp. two-source systems

  • Research and analysis of clean coal technologies

  • Analysis of new concepts of zero CO2 emission power generation technologies

  • Fuel cell hybrid systems - research and development

  • Implementation of mathematical modelling of power installations in collaboration with distributed control systems (DCS)

  • New concept of power plant information system


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Fuel cell hybrid systems

Recently, the interest in investigation on ultra-efficientelectricity generation systems is focused on the application of fuel cells. From distributed generationpoint of view(200 kW to 20 MW), two types of fuelcells are considered: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.These types of fuel cells require more complex configuration of power plant cyclefor proper operation.

The introduction of fuel cell into power plant cycle creates a hybrid system. The research and development of these hybrid systemsis a key for future use ofthis kind of energy sources. The focus of investigations should be laid ondesign, off-design and dynamic simulations of hybrid systems.


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

Implementation of mathematical modelling of power installations in collaboration with distributed control systems (DCS)

ITC

The new abilities for data transfer and recording within the DCS make the implementation of different application software possible. The software co-operating with DCS can also generate information for the system. That makes simulation of operation of controlled installation elements possible.

Examples of projects of implementation of mathematical modelling for DCS applications, realised in our Institute: digital simulator of a back-pressure extracting steam turbine, digital simulator of a steam boiler, optimisation of load distribution in captive and utility power plants (combined heat and power), software products supporting operation of power plants .


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

New concept of power plant information system

Distributed control systems (DCS) are installed in all major power and industrial plants. The automatic collection of technical data and computer processing ability open and even force new opportunitiesof process control and maintenance. On the other hand, a new concept of management information system (MIS) organisation in power plants and companies should be done. The new policy on the Polish energy market strongly speeds the consolidation of generators into power concerns up. Therefore, in several enterprises kind of remote management centres will be created. New MISs need to be used for them. A concept of complex utilisation data warehouse and “power portal” (internet type GUI), which seems to be the most suitable for this kind of application, was presented in multiple papers.


Some aspects of energy efficiency and energy conservation in power generation industry

ITC

Krzysztof Badyda

INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING

WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

http://www.itc.pw.edu.pl

  • THANK YOU

  • FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION !

Krzysztof Badyda D.Sc., Ph.D.ProfessorWarsaw University of TechnologyInstitute of Heat EngineeringNowowiejska 25 Str.pl 00-665 Warszawatel. (+48-22) 660-5281, 825-29-01fax. (+48-22) 825-25-65e-mail: [email protected]

Conference on the Future of Energy in Enlarged Europe: Perspectives for R&D Co-operation

A contribution within the context of the Weimar Triangle

October 7- 8th, 2004, Warsaw


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