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Climate Smart Landscapes. Tony Simons (ICRAF) CTA Briefing, Brussels, Sept 2012. Climate Smart Landscapes. What is a Landscape? Climate Smart (Wins and Losses) The Landscape Approach. 1. What is a Landscape?. Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including:

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Climate Smart Landscapes

Tony Simons (ICRAF) CTA Briefing, Brussels, Sept 2012


Climate Smart Landscapes

  • What is a Landscape?

  • Climate Smart (Wins and Losses)

  • The Landscape Approach


1. What is a Landscape?

  • Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including:

  • physical elements of landforms such as mountains, water bodies, vegetation

  • human elements including different forms of land use, buildings and structures, and

  • transitory elements such as weather conditions.

  • (from Wikipedia, 2012)

"landscapes are not only what lies before our eyes

but what lies within our heads.“ (Meinig)


Urban Areas

Pasture &

Rangelands

3.4 billion ha

Pasture &

Rangelands

3.4 billion ha

Crop

Land

1.5 billion ha

Crop

Land

1.5 billion ha

Natural

Forest

4.1 billion ha

Tree

Plantations

0.3 billion ha

Natural

Forest

4.1 billion ha

Deserts

1.9 billion ha

Wetlands

1.3 billion ha

Deserts

1.9 billion ha

Wetlands

1.3 billion ha

Global Land Area


Global Land Area - proportional

Pasture &

Rangelands

3.4 billion ha

Crop

Land

1.5 billion ha

Natural

Forest

4.1 billion ha

Deserts

1.9 billion ha

Wetlands

1.3 billion ha


Agriculture

Forestry

Environment

CSA

REDD+

PES


2. Climate Smart (Wins, Losses)

  • Climate Smart Agriculture seeks to:

  • Increase productivity/income (P&I)

  • Increase Carbon sequestration (Seq)

  • Reduce agriculture GHG emissions (REm)

  • Strengthen farmers’ resilience/adaptation (Adp)

win-win-win-win?

or tradeoffs?


√√√

Zero grazing

of ruminants

IAASTD

Rubber

plantation

in Amazon

Fertilised

maize on

poor soils

???

X

XXX



Information and Knowledge Gaps/Needs

  • Conceptual framework

  • Data sources

  • Modelling

  • M&E systems

  • Trade-off analyses (method and units)

  • Indicators, Metrics and Indices

  • Decision processes, choices, perspectives



3. The Landscape Approach (cont.)

  • Much mentioned at Rio +20, why?

  • Is it new? Or a recycled existing approach?

  • Is it exclusive?

  • Championed by some with almost religious zeal

  • Will it apply in all locations? and all sectors?

  • Is it associated with an institution?

  • Does it have a formal definition?


3. The Landscape Approach (cont.)

Four underlying Principles:

  • 1. Make sense and operate across nested and interacting

  • social and political scales (village, district, country)

  • 2. Make sense and operate across nested and overlapping

  • biophysical scales (e.g. farm, watershed, basin)

  • 3. Involve multiple and defined sectors and stakeholders

  • 4. Seek synergies and reduce tradeoffs

People-Place-Purpose

The right practice for the right people in the right place for the right reason


Ethiopia soil map

Soil maps generally static

Coarse resolution

Don’t reflect functional properties of the soil


But what does it mean?

and how can we use it?


Soil Carbon (30m x 30m)

Can guide better decisions



Landscape learnings from Challenges of REDD

  • Market alone won’t solve deforestation problem

  • Carbon only part of picture (water, habitat, biodiversity, services)

  • MRV needs to be independent of government

  • Handling cross-sectoral/ministerial issues

  • Controversy over rights to pollute, displacement of emissions

  • Opportunism of carbon cowboys

  • Definition and inclusion problems of tree, forest

  • Asynchronous forest laws, agrarian reform, land tenure

  • Land-use/land-cover conundrum

  • Bundling protection forest, production forest, conversion forest, (non-forest)

  • REDD is only partial accounting

  • Low capacity/compliance of fpic, indigenous rights, social safeguards

  • Baselines versus reference levels

  • Emissions embedded in trade

  • Stock:emission rate ratios are lowering (time pressure to act)

  • All actors believe most finance should go to them


eastern

western

Fort Tenan


Participatory Assessment of Current and Potential Climate Smart Practices

Using and Improving Predictive Tools for Potential Impact

Awareness Raising, Capacity Development and Demonstrations

Baseline Measurement and Monitoring of Land Health

Greenhouse Gases

Introduction or testing of Climate Smart Practices

FAO

MICCA Project

Increasing Productivity

Reducing Environmental Footprint


Tenure effects on land productivity and investment Smart Practices

Un-adjudicated land:

no firm legal title

Adjudicated under the Land Adjudication Act CAP 284 1968, intensive smallholder cultivation with clear freehold title

Norton-Griffith, in preparation



Human landscapes

Land units as non-interacting aggregates Smart Practices

Economic or social synergies not accommodated

Social processes across land uses ignored or aggregated

Human Landscapes

(Ghazoul, ISPC Meeting, 2011)


The Good News Smart Practices

…and yes, there are some systems that can give the four wins


unsustainable agriculture Smart Practices

climate smart landscapes


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