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Climate Smart Landscapes. Tony Simons (ICRAF) CTA Briefing, Brussels, Sept 2012. Climate Smart Landscapes. What is a Landscape? Climate Smart (Wins and Losses) The Landscape Approach. 1. What is a Landscape?. Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including:

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slide1

Climate Smart Landscapes

Tony Simons (ICRAF) CTA Briefing, Brussels, Sept 2012

slide2

Climate Smart Landscapes

  • What is a Landscape?
  • Climate Smart (Wins and Losses)
  • The Landscape Approach
slide3

1. What is a Landscape?

  • Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including:
  • physical elements of landforms such as mountains, water bodies, vegetation
  • human elements including different forms of land use, buildings and structures, and
  • transitory elements such as weather conditions.
  • (from Wikipedia, 2012)

"landscapes are not only what lies before our eyes

but what lies within our heads.“ (Meinig)

slide4

Urban Areas

Pasture &

Rangelands

3.4 billion ha

Pasture &

Rangelands

3.4 billion ha

Crop

Land

1.5 billion ha

Crop

Land

1.5 billion ha

Natural

Forest

4.1 billion ha

Tree

Plantations

0.3 billion ha

Natural

Forest

4.1 billion ha

Deserts

1.9 billion ha

Wetlands

1.3 billion ha

Deserts

1.9 billion ha

Wetlands

1.3 billion ha

Global Land Area

slide5

Global Land Area - proportional

Pasture &

Rangelands

3.4 billion ha

Crop

Land

1.5 billion ha

Natural

Forest

4.1 billion ha

Deserts

1.9 billion ha

Wetlands

1.3 billion ha

slide6

What is best way to achieve CSA??

  • Productivity/Income
  • Sequestration/Mitigation
  • Reduced emissions
  • Resilience/Adaptation

Agriculture

Forestry

Environment

CSA

REDD+

PES

slide7

2. Climate Smart (Wins, Losses)

  • Climate Smart Agriculture seeks to:
  • Increase productivity/income (P&I)
  • Increase Carbon sequestration (Seq)
  • Reduce agriculture GHG emissions (REm)
  • Strengthen farmers’ resilience/adaptation (Adp)

win-win-win-win?

or tradeoffs?

slide8

√√√

Zero grazing

of ruminants

IAASTD

Rubber

plantation

in Amazon

Fertilised

maize on

poor soils

???

X

XXX

slide10

Information and Knowledge Gaps/Needs

  • Conceptual framework
  • Data sources
  • Modelling
  • M&E systems
  • Trade-off analyses (method and units)
  • Indicators, Metrics and Indices
  • Decision processes, choices, perspectives
slide12

3. The Landscape Approach (cont.)

  • Much mentioned at Rio +20, why?
  • Is it new? Or a recycled existing approach?
  • Is it exclusive?
  • Championed by some with almost religious zeal
  • Will it apply in all locations? and all sectors?
  • Is it associated with an institution?
  • Does it have a formal definition?
slide13

3. The Landscape Approach (cont.)

Four underlying Principles:

  • 1. Make sense and operate across nested and interacting
  • social and political scales (village, district, country)
  • 2. Make sense and operate across nested and overlapping
  • biophysical scales (e.g. farm, watershed, basin)
  • 3. Involve multiple and defined sectors and stakeholders
  • 4. Seek synergies and reduce tradeoffs

People-Place-Purpose

The right practice for the right people in the right place for the right reason

slide14

Ethiopia soil map

Soil maps generally static

Coarse resolution

Don’t reflect functional properties of the soil

slide15

But what does it mean?

and how can we use it?

slide16

Soil Carbon (30m x 30m)

Can guide better decisions

slide20

Landscape learnings from Challenges of REDD

  • Market alone won’t solve deforestation problem
  • Carbon only part of picture (water, habitat, biodiversity, services)
  • MRV needs to be independent of government
  • Handling cross-sectoral/ministerial issues
  • Controversy over rights to pollute, displacement of emissions
  • Opportunism of carbon cowboys
  • Definition and inclusion problems of tree, forest
  • Asynchronous forest laws, agrarian reform, land tenure
  • Land-use/land-cover conundrum
  • Bundling protection forest, production forest, conversion forest, (non-forest)
  • REDD is only partial accounting
  • Low capacity/compliance of fpic, indigenous rights, social safeguards
  • Baselines versus reference levels
  • Emissions embedded in trade
  • Stock:emission rate ratios are lowering (time pressure to act)
  • All actors believe most finance should go to them
slide21

eastern

western

Fort Tenan

slide22

Participatory Assessment of Current and Potential Climate Smart Practices

Using and Improving Predictive Tools for Potential Impact

Awareness Raising, Capacity Development and Demonstrations

Baseline Measurement and Monitoring of Land Health

Greenhouse Gases

Introduction or testing of Climate Smart Practices

FAO

MICCA Project

Increasing Productivity

Reducing Environmental Footprint

slide23

Tenure effects on land productivity and investment

Un-adjudicated land:

no firm legal title

Adjudicated under the Land Adjudication Act CAP 284 1968, intensive smallholder cultivation with clear freehold title

Norton-Griffith, in preparation

human landscapes

Land units as non-interacting aggregates

Economic or social synergies not accommodated

Social processes across land uses ignored or aggregated

Human Landscapes

(Ghazoul, ISPC Meeting, 2011)

slide27

The Good News

…and yes, there are some systems that can give the four wins

slide28

unsustainable agriculture

climate smart landscapes

ad