Sensor based technology for predicting soil organic carbon organic matter kent martin
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Sensor based technology for predicting soil organic carbon organic matter kent martin

Sensor Based Technology for Predicting Soil Organic Carbon (Organic Matter)Kent Martin


Soil organic matter analysis and interpretation

Organic matter is the most complex, dynamic, and reactive soil component.Because of the importance of organic matter in soils, its estimation is important in disciplines ranging from soil fertility, chemistry, and physics to land planning and soil productivity.

Soil Organic Matter: Analysis and Interpretation


Sensor based technology for predicting soil organic carbon organic matter kent martin

3H2 + N2 2NH3

GLOBAL WARMING

ATMOSPHERE

N2O

NO

N2

INDUSTRIAL

FIXATION

LIGHTNING,

RAINFALL

N2 FIXATION

PLANT AND ANIMAL

RESIDUES

HABER BOSCH

(1200°C, 500 atm)

SYMBIOTIC

NON-SYMBIOTIC

MESQUITE

RHIZOBIUM

ALFALFA

SOYBEAN

BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

AZOTOBACTER

CLOSTRIDIUM

MATERIALS WITH N

CONTENT > 1.5%

(COW MANURE)

MATERIALS WITH N

CONTENT < 1.5%

(WHEAT STRAW)

FERTILIZATION

PLANT

LOSS

AMINO

ACIDS

MICROBIAL

DECOMPOSITION

NH3

AMMONIA

VOLATILIZATION

IMMOBILIZATION

AMINIZATION

HETEROTROPHIC

ORGANIC

MATTER

R-NH2 + ENERGY + CO2

BACTERIA (pH>6.0)

FUNGI (pH<6.0)

pH>7.0

R-NH2 + H2O

AMMONIFICATION

NH2OH

IMMOBILIZATION

R-OH + ENERGY + 2NH3

N2O2-

Pseudomonas, Bacillus,

Thiobacillus Denitrificans,

and T. thioparus

2NH4+ + 2OH-

MICROBIAL/PLANT

SINK

MINERALIZATION

+ NITRIFICATION

FIXED ON

EXCHANGE

SITES

+O2

NO2-

Nitrosomonas

DENITRIFICATION

NO3-

POOL

NITRIFICATION

2NO2- + H2O + 4H+

OXIDATION STATES

Nitrobacter

+ O2

DENITRIFICATION

LEACHING

LEACHING

VOLATILIZATION

NITRIFICATION

ADDITIONS

NH3 AMMONIA-3

NH4+ AMMONIUM-3

N2 DIATOMIC N0

N2O NITROUS OXIDE1

NO NITRIC OXIDE2

NO2- NITRITE3

NO3- NITRATE5

TEMP 50°F

LEACHING

LEACHING

LOSSES

OXIDATION REACTIONS

LEACHING

REDUCTION REACTIONS

pH 7.0


Sudduth

(SSCM) Site-specific Crop ManagementHummel and SudduthAims to improve production efficiency by adjusting crop treatments to varying local conditions within the field.

Sudduth


Sensor based technology for predicting soil organic carbon organic matter kent martin

Optical SensorUses NIR reflectance data at many different narrow-banded wavelengthsMore complex, but more expensive and less durable than single-band sensorIntended use: soil organic matter


Sensor based technology for predicting soil organic carbon organic matter kent martin

Steps of sensor operation1.Emit light using fiber optics2. Light is reflected from soil surface3.Light is captured by photodetector4.Data is sent to PC


Effective sensing range 1630 2650nm

Effective Sensing Range 1630- 2650nm


Prediction of organic carbon in the laboratory

Prediction of organic carbon in the laboratory


Sensor based technology for predicting soil organic carbon organic matter kent martin

Prediction was based on many variable soil types and variable moisture contents.Accuracy for SOM r^2= 0.89Accuracy for moisture r^2= 0.94


Benefits

Benefits

  • Gives a way to measure soil organic matter

  • Measures soil moisture

  • Can be added to data layers for specific fields to generate maps


Negative points

Negative Points

  • Expensive

  • Low durability

  • Not yet acceptable for use in field


Possible uses of sensor estimation of soil organic matter

Possible uses of sensorEstimation of soil organic matter

  • Soil structure

  • Water holding capacity

  • Infiltration of water and air

  • Reduction of soil erosion


References

References

  • Hummel, John W. Within-field Location and Sensing Technology. 04/18/01 www. odyssey.maine.edu/gisweb/spatdb/acsm/ac94071

  • OSU. Oklahoma Soil Fertility Handbook. 2000

  • Magdoff, F. R. Soil Organic Matter: Analysis and Interpretation. 1996


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