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Chapter 11. Intelligence. Defining Intelligence. Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment Operational Definition : Operations used to measure a concept Aptitude : Capacity for learning certain abilities

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Intelligence


Defining intelligence
Defining Intelligence

  • Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment

  • Operational Definition: Operations used to measure a concept

  • Aptitude: Capacity for learning certain abilities

  • Multiple Aptitude Test: Test that measures two or more abilities

  • General Intelligence Test: Test that measures a wide variety of mental abilities


Fig. 11.1 Special aptitude tests measure a person’s potential for achievement in a limited area of ability, such as manual dexterity. Multiple aptitude tests measure potentials in broader areas, such as college work, law or medicine. Intelligence tests measure a very wide array of aptitudes and mental abilities


Fig.11.2 Sample questions like those found on tests of mechanical aptitude. (The answers are A and the Driver.)


Reliability
Reliability

  • Reliability: A measure should give the same score each time the same person takes it

  • Test-Retest: Give test to a large group, then give exactly the same test to same group later

  • Split-Half: Making sure scores on one-half of a test match the scores on the other half


Validity
Validity

  • Validity: Ability of a test to measure what it is purported to measure

    • Criterion Validity: Comparing test scores to actual performance

      • Comparing SAT to college grades


Testing intelligence
Testing Intelligence

  • Norm: Average score for a designated group of people

  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5): Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; for ages 2-90!

  • Chronological Age: Person’s age in years

  • Mental Age: Average intellectual performance

  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100

    • Average IQ in the USA is 100


Fig.11.4 The stability or reliability of IQ scores increases rapidly in early childhood. Scores are very consistent from early adulthood to later middle age. (Source: Schuerger & Witt, 1989.)


More iq terms
More IQ Terms

  • Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scores

  • IQ scores are not very dependable until a child reaches age 6

  • Terminal Decline: Abrupt decline in measured IQ about 5 years before death


Wechsler tests
Wechsler Tests

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Third Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilities

    • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months, 30 days

    • SB5 is better suited for children and adolescents

    • WISC-IV to be published in 2003


Wechsler scales
Wechsler Scales

  • Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligence; measured by solving puzzles, completing pictures, and assembling objects

  • Verbal Intelligence: Language intelligence; measured by answering questions involving vocabulary, information, arithmetic, and other language-oriented tasks


Group tests
Group Tests

  • These tests can be given to a large group of people with little supervision; usually contain multiple-choice items

    • Army Alpha was the first group intelligence test; developed for those entering World War I in the USA

  • Normal (Bell-Shaped) Curve: Most scores fall close to the average, and very few are found at the extremes


Iq research
IQ Research

  • Men and women do not appear to differ in overall intelligence

  • A strong correlation (about .50) exists between IQ and school grades


Giftedness
Giftedness

  • Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at age 5)


Mental retardation or developmental disabilities some definitions
Mental Retardation (or Developmental Disabilities): Some Definitions

  • Presence of a developmental disability and an IQ score below 70; a significant impairment of adaptive behavior also figures into the definition

    • Adaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as dressing, eating, working, hygiene; necessary for self-care

  • Familial Retardation: Mild mental retardation that occurs in homes that have inadequate nutrition, intellectual stimulation, medical care, and emotional support


Organic causes of mental retardation
Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Definitions

  • Related to physical disorders

  • Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen during delivery

  • Fetal Damage: Congenital problem; prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug use by the mother

  • Metabolic Disorders: Disorder in metabolism; affects energy use and production in the body

  • Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes


Types of organic causes
Types of Organic Causes Definitions

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU): Genetic disease in which the child lacks an important enzyme. Allows phenylpyruvic acid to accumulate in the body

    • If untreated, severe retardation may occur by age 3

    • Routine medical tests at birth can detect PKU

    • Treat with phenylalanine-free diet (found, for example, in Aspartame, known as Nutrasweet)


More organic causes of mental retardation
More Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Definitions

  • Microcephaly: Head and brain are abnormally small; brain is forced to develop in a limited space

  • Hydrocephaly: Buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles (brain cavities); pressure can enlarge the head and damage the brain

  • Cretinism: Stunted growth and retardation caused by insufficient supply of thyroid hormone

    • May also be caused by lack of iodine

    • Easily detected in infancy


Down syndrome
Down Syndrome Definitions

  • Down Syndrome: Genetic disorder caused by presence of extra chromosome (usually on the 21st pair; trisomy 21); results in mental retardation and shorter life span

    • Does not run in the family

    • Older a woman is, greater the risk to produce a Down’s child

    • Older fathers also contribute (about 25% of the time)

    • No cure, but is detectable before birth


Fragile x syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome Definitions

  • Fragile X Syndrome: Genetic form of retardation caused by defect in X chromosome

    • Runs in families

    • Sex-linked; mainly affects boys

    • Most suffer from hyperactivity and attention disorders

    • Become more severely retarded as adults


Heredity and environment
Heredity and Environment Definitions

  • Eugenics: Selective Breeding for desirable characteristics

  • Fraternal Twins: Twins conceived from two separate eggs

  • Identical twins: Twins who develop from a single egg and have identical genes

  • Many researchers believe that intelligence is a combination of heredity (genes) and environment (upbringing); contributing percentage of each is not known yet


New ways of viewing intelligence
New Ways of Viewing Intelligence Definitions

  • Speed of Processing: Brain’s speed and efficiency; how fast you and your brain can process information

  • Inspection Time: Amount of time a person must look at a stimulus to make a correct judgment about it

  • Neural Intelligence: Speed and efficiency of the nervous system; innate

  • Experiential Intelligence: Specialized knowledge and skills acquired over time


Fig.11.8 Definitions Attempts to measure the speed of mental processing have taken several forms. In this example, the person must make a rapid choice based on the position of a colored stimulus flashed on the computer screen. A faster reaction time is assumed to reflect faster processing of information. In some experiments, brain responses are measured directly, through electrodes attached to the scalp.


Fig 11 9 stimuli like those used in inspection time tasks
Fig.11.9 Definitions Stimuli like those used in inspection time tasks.


New ways of viewing intelligence cont
New Ways of Viewing Intelligence Definitions(cont.)

  • Reflective Intelligence: Ability to become aware of one’s own thinking habits

  • Metacognitive Skills: Ability to manage one’s own thinking and problem solving efforts


Gardner s theory of intelligence some concepts
Gardner’s Theory of Intelligence: Some Concepts Definitions

  • Multiple Intelligences: Theory posed by Howard Gardner that states we have several specialized types of intellectual ability

  • G-Factor: General ability factor; assumed to explain the high correlations among various intellectual measures


Gardner s theory of eight multiple intelligences
Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences Definitions

  • Language: Used for thinking by lawyers, writers, comedians

  • Logic and Math: Used by scientists, accountants, programmers

  • Visual and Spatial Thinking: Used by engineers, inventors, aviators

  • Music: Used by composers, musicians, music critics


Gardner s theory of eight multiple intelligences cont
Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences Definitions(cont.)

  • Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Used by dancers, athletes, surgeons

  • Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Used by poets, actors, ministers

  • Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): Used by psychologists, teachers, politicians

  • Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural Environment): Used by biologists, organic farmers


A different type of intelligence test
A Different Type of Intelligence Test Definitions

  • Culture-Fair Test: Test designed to minimize importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in others


Fig.11.10 Definitions No intelligence test can be entirely free of cultural bias. However, culture-fair intelligences test try to minimize the effects of growing up in various cultures. The following sample items are from a culture-fair test. 1. Which pattern is different from the remaining four? (Number 3.) 2. Which of the five figures on the right would properly continue the three on the left_that is, fill in the blank? (Number 5.) 3. Which of the figures on the right should go in the square on the left to make it look right? (Number 2.) 4. At left, the dot is outside the square and inside the circle. In which of the figures on the right could you put a dot outside the square and inside the circle? (Number 3) (Courtesy of R.B. Cattell).


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