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Xác LậpMụcTiêu Đào Tạo Educational Objectives. GS.TS.BS LÊ HOÀNG NINH. Nếu bạn không biết là sẽ đi đâu thì chắc chắc là bạn sẽ tới một nơi nào đó mà chính bạn cũng không biết Mager

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Xác LậpMụcTiêu Đào Tạo Educational Objectives

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XácLậpMụcTiêuĐàoTạoEducational Objectives

GS.TS.BS LÊ HOÀNG NINH


Nếu bạn không biết là sẽ đi đâu thì chắc chắc là bạn sẽ tới một nơi nào đó mà chính bạn cũng không biết

Mager

If you are not certain of where you are going you may very well end up somewhere else ( and not even know it)

Mager


Every individual should have access to a type of education that permit maximum development of his potential and capabilities.

Education is a process, the chief goal of which is to bring a bout change in human behavior

The result of education is

an expected change in the behavior of the student in the course of a given period


VÒNG XOẮN ĐÀO TẠO

  • This "behavior" will be defined explicitly in the form of educational objectives derived from professional tasks.

  • An evaluation system will be planned so that better educational decisions can be taken.

  • A program will be prepared and implemented to facilitate attainment of educational objectives by the students.

  • The evaluation process will be used to measure the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. . . it will measure the student's final abilities. . . and the effectiveness of program and teachers


VÒNG XOẮN ĐÀO TẠO (THE EDUCATIONAL SPIRAL)


Organizational diagram showing the relationship between the subsystem “Education” (inside the dotted line) and the subsystem “Health Service”.


MỤC TIÊU ĐÀO TẠO

{EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE (DERIVED FROM PROFESSIONAL TASKS)}


Sự liên quan giữa hoạt động chuyên môn

trong lãnh vực sức khỏe và mục tiêu đào tạo


CÁC LỌẠI MỤC TIÊU ĐÀO TẠO

1. MỤC TIÊU CHUNG ( CƠ QUAN)General objectives: Correspond to the function so f the type(s) of health personnel trained in an establishment.

Example: Providing preventive and curative care to the individual and the community, in health and in sickness

2. MỤC TIÊU TRUNG GIAN ( KHOA/ PHÒNG/ BỘ MÔN)“Intermediate" objectives: Arrived at by breaking down professional functions into components ( activities) which together indicate the nature of those functions

Example: Planning and carrying out a blood sampling session for a group of adults in the community

3.MỤC TIÊU CHUYÊN BIỆT ( BÀI GiẢNG/ THỰC HÀNH) Specific or instructional) objectives: Corresponding to (or derived from) precise professional tasks whose results are observable and measurable against given criteria

Example: Using the syringe, to take a blood sample (5 ml.) from the cubital vein of an adult (criteria: absence of haematoma; amount of blood taken within 10% of the amount required; not more than two attempts)


CÁC DỮ LIỆU CẦN CÓ KHI XÁC LẬP

MỤC TIÊU ĐÀO TẠO

  • Health needs , demands and resources of society.

  • Services to the patient( list of tasks).

  • Service of the community( list of tasks).

  • The profession itself.

  • The students.

  • Progress in sciences.

  • The scientific method.

  • etc... . . .


INSTITUTIONAL OBJECTIVES


MỤC TIÊU CƠ QUAN INSTITUTIONAL OBJECTIVES


INSTITUTIONAL OBJECTIVES


CÁC HOẠT ĐỘNG CHUYÊN MÔN (PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES)


CÁC HOẠT ĐỘNG CHUYÊN MÔN


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


XÂY DỰNG CÁCH TIẾP CẬN XÁC HỢP

TRONG XÂY DỰNG MỤC TIÊU ĐÀO TẠO


Professional tasks and specific educational objective


PHÂN LOẠI MỤC TIÊU ĐÀO TẠO THEO 3 LÃNH VỰC CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE INTO THREE DOMAINS: PRACTICAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUAL SKILLS

  • Domain of attitudes (communication skills).

  • 1.1 The first is the level of Receptivity or attention; it implies sensitivity to the existence of a certain phenomenon and includes a willingness to receive.

  • 1.2 The second level is that of Response. This implies sufficient interest in the phenomenon noticed to do something about it.

  • 1.3 The third level is that of Internalization.


CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE INTO THREE DOMAINS: PRACTICAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUALS KILLS

2. Domain of practical skills

2.1 The first level is that of Imitation. The student, exposed to an observable action, makes an attempt to copy it step by step, guided by an impulse to imitate: he needs a model.

2.2 The second level is that of Control. At this stage the student is able to demonstrate a skill according to instructions and not merely on the basis of observation. He also begins to differentiate between one set of skills and another and to be able to choose the one required. He starts to be adept at handling elected instruments.

2.3 The third level is that of Automatism. A high degree of proficiency is attained in using the skill, which now requires only a minimum of energy.


CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE INTO THREE DOMAINS: PRACTICAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUALS KILLS

  • 3. Domain of intellectual skills

  • In 1963, C.McGuire proposed a classification system derived from that of Bloom and designed more specifically for use in the preparation of achievement tests for students

  • Levels

  • 1. Knowledge

    • 1.1 Recall

    • 1.2 Recognition of meaning

  • 2. Generalization

  • 3. Solving of a routine problem

    • 3.1 Interpretation of data

    • 3.2 Application

  • 4. Solving of an unfamiliar problem

    • 4.1 Analysis of data

    • 4.2 Special application

  • 5. Evaluation

  • 6. Synthesis


THE THREE CLASSIFICATIONS (SIMPLIFIED)

able to solve a new

problem

able to internalize

a feeling

able to perform a practical act automatically and with a high degree of efficiency

able to interpret data

able to supply a

response to the effective need of another person

able to exercise effective control over the practical skill

able to recall facts

able to show receptivity

towards another person

able to imitate the

actions of a model

domain of intellectual skills

domain of

communication

skills

domain of

practical skills

participation in educational activities


Qualities of a

Specific Educational

Objective

Relevant

Logical

Unequivocal

Feasible

Observable

Measurable

DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


WORDS OFTEN USED BUT OPEN TO MANY INTERPRETATIONS

  • to know

  • to discuss

  • to understand

  • to really understand

  • to appreciate

  • to fully appreciate

  • to believe

  • to have faith in

    ect.


WORDS OPEN TO FEWER INTERPRETATIONS

  • to write

  • to identify

  • to differentiate

  • to solve

  • to construct

  • to list

  • to compare

  • to contras

    ect.


Relevance is

the essential quality

of educational objectives

Objectives which have every quality except relevance are potentially dangerous


Elements of a specific

educational objective

the act

the content

the condition

+ the criteria

the task


Don’t forget!

The essential quality of educational objectives is their relevance to the health needs of society


If you help each learner to develop his/her learning objectives you may not have to do much else.

Adapted from Mager

Câu hỏi của các ban ?.....


Tàiliệuthamkhảo

J.J. Guilbert. Educational handbook for health personnel. Sixth Edition. WHO 1997


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