The Nervous System. Unit K. Objectives. Describe the structure of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Analyze the function of the nervous system. Identify characteristics and treatments of common nervous system disorders. Central Nervous System.
-Transmits a message from one cell to another
-Has a nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane
May be one or more of theses projections.Dendrites
A space between neurons, messages go from one cell to another.
This includes peripheral nerves and ganglia, supplies heart muscle, smooth muscle and secretory glands, involuntary action
The brain and spinal cordCENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
DURA MATER- outer brain covering, lines inside of skull, tough dense fibrous connective tissueCoverings of the Brain (MENINGES)
A space between arachnoid and pia mater, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID tough dense fibrous connective tissue- acts as a liquid shock absorber and source of nutrients for the brain
Choroids plexus helps in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid.Cerebrospinal Fluid!!!
Covers the brain’s surface, comprised of blood vessels held together by connective tissue
Innermost layer of the meninges.PIA MATER
Middle layer, resembles fine cobweb. held together by connective tissueARACHNOID
Between the dura and arachnoid. held together by connective tissueSUBDURAL SPACE
Brain contains four cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid called CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Removal pf CSF from spinal canal, needle puncture between 3 held together by connective tissuerd and 4th lumbar vertebrae.LUMBAR PUNTURE
Choroid plexus capillaries prevent substance (like drugs) from penetrating brain tissue – this makes infections, like meningitis, difficult to cure.BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER-
Forms inside ventricles of the brain. from penetrating brain tissue – this makes infections, like meningitis, difficult to cure.
Serves as a liquid shock absorberCEREBROSPINAL FLUID
Network of blood vessels lining the ventricles which helps in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid.CHOROID PLEXUS
Largestpart of the brain
Maintains consciousness, mental processing and normal speech.
Divided into R and L hemispheres by deep groove.
Divided into four lobes– FRONTAL, PARIETAL, OCCIPITAL and TEMPORAL
SULCI- fissure or grooves separating cerebral convolutionsCEREBRUM cont..
E convolutionslevated folds on the surface of the cerebrum, they increase the surface area of the brain.CONVULTIONS
CEREBRAL FUNTION: convolutionsConscious thought, judgment, memory, reasoning,and will power.
1. Autonomic nervous control
2. Temperature control
3. Appetite control
4. Emotional state
5. Sleep control
BRAIN STEM convolutions
1. Heart rate
2. Blood pressure
Located behind the pons and below the cerebrum convolutions
Second largest part of the brain.
Composed of two hemispheres
Controls all body functions related to skeletal muscles, including:
Coordination of muscle movementsCEREBELLUM
SPINAL CORD convolutions
Begin in the brain
Designated by number and name
31 pairs of spinal nerves
All are mixed nerves
Named in relation to their location on the spinal cordSPINAL NERVES
Regulates activities of visceral organs such vertebraeas the heart.
Not subject to conscious controlAUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
The vertebrae“fight or flight” system- when the body perceives danger, SNS sends message to adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline- heartbeat increases.SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
May be bacterial or viralSymptoms- headache, fever and stiff neck
In severe form, may lead to paralysis, coma and death
If bacterial, may be treated with antibioticsMENINGITIS
HYDROCEPHALUS (pictured below)
problems remembering (Aphasia)
PARALYSIS- loss of power of motion or sensation
HEMIPLEGIA- paralysis on one side of the body
PARKINSON’S DISEASE vertebrae
Chronic inflammatory disease of CNS vertebrae
Immune cells attack myelin sheath of axon-myelin sheath destroyed, leaving scar tissue on nerve cells.
Transmission of nerve impulses blocked.
Symps- weakness of extremities, numbness, double vision, nystagmus, speech problems, loss of coordination, possible paalysis.
Typically stikes young adults age 20-40, mostly women
Rx- Avonex- slows progressionMULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)
Causes of CVA
90% caused by blood clots
Clots lodge in carotid arteries, blocking the flow of blood to the brain
10% caused by ruptured blood vessels in the brain
If TIAs- one aspirin a day
Exercise and lose weight