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Operations Management Layout Strategy Chapter 9. Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions. Fixed-Position Layout. Office Layout. Process-Oriented Layout (Flow graphs). Retail Layout. Warehouse Layout. Product-Oriented Layout (Assembly line balancing). Outline. What is Facility Layout.

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Operations management layout strategy chapter 9 l.jpg

Operations ManagementLayout StrategyChapter 9


Outline l.jpg

Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions.

Fixed-Position Layout.

Office Layout.

Process-Oriented Layout (Flow graphs).

Retail Layout.

Warehouse Layout.

Product-Oriented Layout (Assembly line balancing).

Outline


What is facility layout l.jpg

What is Facility Layout

  • Location or arrangement of everything within & around buildings.

  • Objectives are to maximize:

    • Utilization of space, equipment, & people.

    • Efficient flow of information, material, & people.

    • Employee morale & safety.

  • Trend is towards flexible and dynamic layouts.


Facility layout l.jpg

Facility Layout

  • Helps achieve competitive advantage:

    • Better, faster, cheaper.

  • Determines productivity, cost, quality, flexibility, image, etc.

  • May involve a blend of strategies.


Six layout strategies l.jpg

Six Layout Strategies

  • 1. Fixed-position layout.

    • For large unique projects such as ships and buildings.

  • 2. Office layout.

    • Positions workers, equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information and material.

  • 3. Process-oriented layout.

    • For low-volume, high-variety production.


Six layout strategies continued l.jpg

Six Layout Strategies - continued

  • 4. Retail/service layout.

    • Arranges facility and allocates shelf space in light of customer behavior.

  • 5. Warehouse layout.

    • Addresses trade-offs between space utilization and material handling.

  • 6. Product-oriented layout.

    • For repetitive or continuous production.


Layout strategies l.jpg

Project

Job Shop

Office

(fixed-position)

(Process-oriented)

Allstate Insurance

Microsoft

Ingal Ship Building

Pittsburgh Airport

Shouldice Hospital

Olive Garden

Examples

Move material to limited storage areas at the site.

Manage varied material flow for each product.

Locate workers requiring contact close to each other.

Problem

Layout Strategies


Layout strategies8 l.jpg

Repetitive

/Continuous

Warehouse

(Product-oriented)

Retail

(storage)

Federal-Mogul’s Warehouse

The Gap’s distribution center

Sony’s TV Assembly Line

Dodge Caravans

Kroger’s Supermarket

Famous-Barr

Examples

Equalize the task time at each workstation.

Balance cost for storage and material handling.

Expose customer to high-margin items.

Problem

Layout Strategies


Requirements for a good layout l.jpg

Requirements for a Good Layout

  • Understand capacity and space requirements.

  • Understand information flows.

  • Understand cost of people and product flows.

  • Select appropriate material handling equipment.

  • Consider environment and aesthetics.

  • Consider safety and regulations.


Constraints on layout objectives l.jpg

Constraints on Layout Objectives

  • Product/service design.

  • Volume of business.

  • Process equipment & capacity.

  • Quality of work life.

  • Building and site.


1 fixed position layout l.jpg

1. Fixed-Position Layout

  • Project is stationary.

    • Special purpose: Construction, shipbuilding, etc.

  • Workers and equipment come to site.

  • Complicating factors.

    • Limited space at site.

    • Changing material needs.

    • Unique projects.


2 office layout l.jpg

2. Office Layout

  • Positions people, equipment, & offices.

    • Usually for maximum information flow.

    • Also can consider material flow.

  • Arranged by process or product.

    • Example: Payroll dept. is by process.

  • Different cultures have different expectations for space.

  • Relationship (or proximity) chart used.


Relationship proximity chart l.jpg

Relationship (Proximity) Chart

  • Uses 6 levels to express desired proximity.

  • A = Absolutely necessary

  • E = Especially important

  • I = Important

  • O= Ordinary importance

  • U = Unimportant

  • X = Not desirable


Relationship proximity chart14 l.jpg

1 President

O

2 Costing

U

E

A

3 Engineering

I

X

U

U

4 President’s Secretary

E

A

5 Photocopiers

Relationship (Proximity) Chart


Relationship proximity chart15 l.jpg

1 President

O

2 Costing

U

E

A

3 Engineering

I

X

U

U

4 President’s Secretary

E

A

2

5 Photocopiers

1

E

I

3

A

X

E

4

5

A

Relationship (Proximity) Chart

Can determine layout using proximity diagram


Office layout l.jpg

2

1

E

I

3

1 President

O

A

X

2 Costing

U

E

A

E

3 Engineering

I

X

4

5

U

U

4 President’s Secretary

E

A

A

5 Photocopiers

Office Layout

Locate 5 offices in a rectangular space.

Offices 2-5 are to be same size.

Office 1 (President’s) is twice as large.


Office layout17 l.jpg

Office Layout

President’s

Photocopiers

Secretary

(5)

(4)

President

Corridor

(1)

Engineering

Costing

(3)

(2)


3 process oriented layout l.jpg

3. Process-Oriented Layout

  • Place departments with large flows of material or people close together.

  • Similar processes and equipment are located in close proximity.

    • For example, all x-ray machines in same area.

  • Used with process-focused processes.

    • Low volume, high variety.


Emergency room layout l.jpg

E.R.Triage room

Patient A - broken leg

E.R. Admissions

Patient B - erratic pacemaker

Surgery

Hallway

Radiology

E.R. beds

Pharmacy

Billing/exit

Emergency Room Layout


Process oriented layout advantages l.jpg

Process-Oriented Layout Advantages

  • Flexibility.

    • Allows wide variety of products.

  • Low fixed costs for general purpose equipment.

  • Breakdown of one machine or worker does not stop processing.


Process oriented layout disadvantages l.jpg

Process-Oriented Layout Disadvantages

  • Scheduling is difficult.

  • High variable cost.

  • High work-in-process inventory and waiting.

  • High labor skills required.


Developing a process oriented layout by hand l.jpg

Developing a Process-Oriented Layout by Hand

Goal: Minimize cost of moving between departments.

  • Construct a “from-to matrix”.

  • Determine space requirements for each department.

  • Develop an initial layout and try to place departments with large flows close together.

  • Determine the cost of this initial layout.

  • Improve the initial layout (by hand or more sophisticated means).

  • Consider factors in addition to transportation cost.


Cost of process oriented layout l.jpg

Cost of Process-Oriented Layout


Flows of parts loads week l.jpg

1

2

3

4

5

6

40

100

0

0

0

1

10

10

2

0

40

10

0

0

80

20

0

3

4

10

0

20

0

50

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

20

20

0

6

Flows of Parts (loads/week)

to

from


Interdepartmental flow of parts l.jpg

1

2

3

4

5

6

50

100

0

0

20

1

10

2

0

50

30

100

20

0

3

4

0

50

5

0

6

Interdepartmental Flow of Parts

Number of loads/week between departments


Initial layout l.jpg

Initial Layout

Room 1Room 2Room 3

Room 4Room 5Room 6


Initial layout flow graph showing loads week l.jpg

100

2

1

3

50

30

20

100

50

20

10

4

5

6

50

Initial Layout Flow Graph Showing Loads/Week


Cost of initial layout l.jpg

100

2

1

3

50

30

20

100

50

20

10

4

5

6

50

Cost of Initial Layout

Cost per load for adjacent locations = $1

Cost per load for non-adjacent locations = $2

1-2 50 = 50*1

1-3 200 = 100*2

1-6 40 = 20*2

2-3 30 = 30*1

2-4 50 = 50*1

2-5 10 = 10*1

3-4 40 = 20*2

3-6 100 = 100*1

4-5 50 = 50*1

Total = $570


Large flows in initial layout l.jpg

Large Flows in Initial Layout

100

2

1

3

50

30

20

100

50

20

10

4

5

6

50

Largest Flows:100 for 1-3 & 3-6, so put 3 close to 1 and 6.

50 for 1-2, 2-4 & 4-5 ,


Improved layout flow graph l.jpg

30

2

1

3

50

100

20

50

20

10

4

5

6

50

Improved Layout Flow Graph

100


Improved layout l.jpg

Improved Layout

Room 1Room 2Room 3

Printing

Assembly

Machine shop

Department

Department

Department

(2)

(1)

(3)

Receiving

Shipping

Testing

Department

Department

Department

(4)

(5)

(6)

Room 4Room 5Room 6


Cost of improved layout l.jpg

Cost of Improved Layout

Cost per load for adjacent locations = $1

Cost per load for non-adjacent locations = $2

1-2 50 = 50*1

1-3 100 = 100*1

1-6 20 = 20*1

2-3 60 = 30*2

2-4 50 = 50*1

2-5 10 = 10*1

3-4 40 = 20*2

3-6 100 = 100*1

4-5 50 = 50*1

Total = $480

30

2

1

3

50

100

100

20

50

20

10

4

5

6

50


Alternative improved layout l.jpg

20

1

3

6

100

100

30

20

50

50

2

4

5

50

10

Alternative Improved Layout


Cost of alternative improved layout l.jpg

20

1

3

6

100

100

30

20

50

50

2

4

5

50

10

Cost of Alternative Improved Layout

Cost per load for adjacent locations = $1

Cost per load for non-adjacent locations = $2

1-2 50 = 50*1

1-3 100 = 100*1

1-6 40 = 20*2

2-3 30 = 30*1

2-4 50 = 50*1

2-5 20 = 10*2

3-4 20 = 20*1

3-6 100 = 100*1

4-5 50 = 50*1

Total = $460

Is this best?


Alternative improved layout35 l.jpg

Alternative Improved Layout

Room 1Room 2Room 3

Assembly

Machine shop

Testing

Department

Department

Department

(6)

(1)

(3)

Printing

Shipping

Receiving

Department

Department

Department

(2)

(5)

(4)

Room 4Room 5Room 6


Layout example 2 l.jpg

1 2 3 4 5

1 - 13 18 3 0

2 - 15 0 6

Distances between locations

3 - 0 4

A B C D E

4 - 4

A - 9 8 12 14

B 9 - 9 6 7

C 8 9 - 4 9

D 12 6 4 - 14

E 14 7 9 14 -

Layout Example 2

Given the following tables of interdepartmental flows and distances between locations A-E, locate the five departments to minimize the total distancexflow.

Interdepartmental flows


Layout example 237 l.jpg

1 2 3 4 5

1 - 13 18 3 0

2 - 15 0 6

Distances between locations

3 - 0 4

A B C D E

4 - 4

A - 9 8 12 14

B 9 - 9 6 7

C 8 9 - 4 9

D 12 6 4 - 14

E 14 7 9 14 -

Layout Example 2

Largest flow 1-3 (flow=18) should be in closest locations: C&D

Could have: Solution 1: C=1 and D=3 or

Solution 2: C=3 and D=1

Interdepartmental flows


Layout example 238 l.jpg

1 2 3 4 5

1 - 13 18 3 0

2 - 15 0 6

Distances between locations

3 - 0 4

A B C D E

4 - 4

A - 9 8 12 14

B 9 - 9 6 7

C 8 9 - 4 9

D 12 6 4 - 14

E 14 7 9 14 -

Layout Example 2

Next largest flow is 2-3, so 2 should be placed in location closest to 3. Solution 1: D=3 and closest open location to D is B, so B=2, C=1, D=3.

Solution 2: C=3 and closest open location to C is A, so A=2, C=3, D=1.

Interdepartmental flows


Layout example 239 l.jpg

1 2 3 4 5

1 - 13 18 3 0

2 - 15 0 6

Distances between locations

3 - 0 4

A B C D E

4 - 4

A - 9 8 12 14

B 9 - 9 6 7

C 8 9 - 4 9

D 12 6 4 - 14

E 14 7 9 14 -

Layout Example 2

Next largest flow is 1-2, but 1 and 2 are already located.

So consider next largest flow 2-5.

Solution 1: B=2 and closest open location to B is E, so A=4,B=2,C=1, D=3,E=5.

Solution 2: A=2 and closest open location to A is B, so A=2,B=5,C=3, D=1,E=4.

Interdepartmental flows


Layout example 240 l.jpg

1 2 3 4 5

1 - 13 18 3 0

2 - 15 0 6

Distances between locations

3 - 0 4

A B C D E

4 - 4

A - 9 8 12 14

B 9 - 9 6 7

C 8 9 - 4 9

D 12 6 4 - 14

E 14 7 9 14 -

Layout Example 2

Solution 1: A=4,B=2,C=1, D=3,E=5.

Distance = 13x9 + 18x4 + 3x8 + 15x6 + 6x7 + 4x14 + 4x14 = 457

Solution 2: A=2,B=5,C=3, D=1,E=4.

Distance = 13x12 + 18x4 + 3x14 + 15x8 + 6x9 + 4x9 + 4x7 = 508

Solution 1 is best!

Interdepartmental flows


Computer programs for layout l.jpg

Computer Programs for Layout

  • Many different programs:

    • CRAFT

    • SPACECRAFT

    • CRAFT 3-D

    • CORELAP

    • ALDEP

  • All are heuristic - not necessarily optimal!!


Work cells in process layouts l.jpg

Work Cells in Process Layouts

  • Special case of product-oriented layout - in a process-oriented facility.

    • Differentmachines brought together to make a product.

    • Use when high volume warrants special arrangement.

    • For 1 product or a small group of products.

    • Temporary arrangement.

  • Example: Assembly line set up to produce 3000 identical parts in a job shop.


Work cell floor plan l.jpg

Saws

Drills

Office

Work Cell

Tool Room

Work Cell Floor Plan


Work cell advantages l.jpg

Work Cell Advantages

Lower:

Inventory.

Floor space.

Direct labor costs.

Higher:

Equipment utilization.

Employee participation.

Quality.


Work cells focused work centers and the focused factory l.jpg

Work Cells, Focused Work Centers and the Focused Factory

A temporary assembly-line-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a process-oriented facility.

Work Cell

A permanent assembly-line-oriented arrangement of machines and personnel in what is ordinarily a process-oriented facility.

Focused Work

Center

A permanent facility to produce a product or component in a product-oriented facility.

Focused Factory


4 retail service layout l.jpg

Video

4. Retail/Service Layout

  • Maximize product exposure to customers.

    • Maximize profitability per square foot of floor space or per linear foot of shelf space.

  • Decision variables:

    • Arrangement of store.

    • Store flow pattern.

    • Allocation of (shelf) space to products.


Retail layouts rules of thumb l.jpg

Retail Layouts - Rules of Thumb

  • Locate high-draw items around the periphery.

  • Use prominent locations (end aisle locations; first or last aisle) for high-impulse and high margin items.

  • Remove crossover aisles to prevent customers from moving between aisles.

  • Distribute “power items” (that dominate a shopping trip) around store to increase the viewing of other items.

    • Locate far apart.

    • Locate on both sides of an aisle.


Grocery store layout l.jpg

Grocery Store Layout


Retail store shelf space l.jpg

5facings

PERT

PERT

PERT

PERT

PERT

Retail Store Shelf Space

  • Consider prominence of shelf location and number of facings.

  • Can use computerized tools to manage shelf-space.

  • Track sales and product location (scanner data).


Servicescape considerations l.jpg

Servicescape Considerations

  • Ambient conditions.

    • Background characteristics such as lighting, sound, smell, and temperature.

  • Spatial layout and functionality.

    • Customer circulation, aisle width, shelf spacing, etc.

  • Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts.

    • Various other characteristics of design (carpeting, greeters, etc.).


5 warehouse layout l.jpg

5. Warehouse Layout

  • Balance space utilization & handling cost.

  • Similar to process layout.

    • Items moved between loading docks & various storage areas.

  • Optimum layout depends on:

    • Variety of items stored.

    • Number of items picked.


Space utilization vs handling costs l.jpg

Space Utilization vs. Handling Costs

  • High space utilization (for storage).

    • Small, narrow aisles.

    • Product stacked high and deep (not easily accessible).

  • Ease of material handling.

    • Wide, short aisles.

    • Product easily accessible.

  • Design facility to optimize space utilization and handling costs tradeoff.


Assigned vs random stock locations l.jpg

Assigned vs. Random Stock Locations

  • Assigned locations for products:

    • May be inefficient use of space.

    • Easier order picking and re-stocking.

  • Random locations:

    • More efficient use of space.

    • Added costs to track location of inventory and “open” space.

    • More difficult order picking and re-stocking.

  • Stock products to optimize cost and efficiencies tradeoffs.


Cross docking wal mart l.jpg

In-coming

Outgoing

Cross Docking (Wal-Mart)

  • Transferring goods:

    • From incoming trucks at receiving docks.

    • To outgoing trucks at shipping docks.

  • Avoids placing goods into storage.

  • Requires suppliers provide effective addressing (bar codes) and packaging for rapid transshipment.


Order picking l.jpg

Order Picking

Collecting items on a customer order from various locations in the warehouse.

  • Sequence items to minimize travel time in warehouse to pick order.

    • Also, should locate items to be efficient to pick.

  • Combine several orders to reduce picking time.

  • Zoning: Assign separate pickers to different zones in the warehouse.

    • Split order among several pickers.


6 product oriented layout l.jpg

6. Product-Oriented Layout

  • Used with product-focussed processes.

    • Facility organized around product.

    • High volume, low variety.

  • Types:

    • Fabrication line - Builds components.

    • Assembly line - Assembles components into products.


Product oriented layout l.jpg

Product-Oriented Layout

  • Divide work into small tasks. To be done by workers or machines.

  • Assign tasks to workstations.

  • Balance output of each workstation.

    • To smooth operations of the line.

    • To make workload equal.

    • To minimize idle time.

    • To achieve desired output.


Product oriented requirements l.jpg

Product-Oriented Requirements

  • Standardized product.

  • High production volume.

  • Stable production quantities.

  • Uniform quality of raw materials & components.


Product oriented layout advantages l.jpg

Product-Oriented Layout Advantages

  • Lower variable cost per unit.

  • Lower material handling costs.

  • Lower work-in-process inventories.

  • Rapid throughput.

  • Easier training & supervision.


Product oriented layout disadvantages l.jpg

Product-Oriented Layout Disadvantages

  • Higher capital investment for special equipment.

  • Any work stoppage stops whole process.

  • Lack of flexibility in volume and product.


Repetitive layout l.jpg

T3

T1

Work Station 1

Work Station 3

T4

T5

T2

Work Station 2

Belt Conveyor

Office

Repetitive Layout

Note: 5 tasks or operations (T1-T5);

3 work stations (orange rectangles)


Assembly line balancing steps l.jpg

Assembly Line Balancing Steps

1.Determine tasks (operations) & task times.

2.Determine sequence of tasks.

3.Draw precedence diagram.

4.Calculate cycle time .

5.Calculate minimum number of work stations, N.

6.Assign tasks.

7.Calculate efficiency.


Assembly line balancing data l.jpg

Assembly Line Balancing Data

Usually we are given:

  • Production rate.

    • Units of product to be produced per unit time.

  • Production time available per day.

  • Tasks (operations) & task times.

  • Sequence of tasks.


Assembly line balancing general procedure l.jpg

Assembly Line BalancingGeneral Procedure

1. Determine cycle time - The time between production of successive units. (May be measured in seconds, minutes, etc.)

2. Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations, denoted N. (May not be achievable.)

3. Assign tasks to workstations to “balance” the line. Compute the efficiency.


Assembly line balancing equations l.jpg

Assembly Line Balancing Equations

Production time available

Cycle time =

Production rate

Minimum number of work stations

 Task times

Rounded up

=

N

=

Cycle time

 Task times

Efficiency =

(Actual number of work stations)

* (Cycle time)


Assembly line balancing example l.jpg

Immediate

TaskTimePredecessor

A 0.1 min.-

B 0.7 min.A

C 1.0 min.B

D 0.5 min.C

E 0.2 min.D

2.5 min.

D

E

C

A

B

0.2

0.7

1.0

0.5

0.1

Assembly Line Balancing Example

Suppose we want to produce 300 units/day and 8 hours are available each day.


Assembly line balancing example67 l.jpg

Immediate

TaskTimePredecessor

A 0.1 min. -

B 0.7 min. A

C 1.0 min. B

D 0.5 min. C

E 0.2 min. D

2.5 min.

Assembly Line Balancing Example

Suppose we want to produce 300 units/day and 8 hours are available each day.

So assign tasks A-E to 2 workstations, where neither workstation should exceed 1.6 minutes.


Assembly line balancing example68 l.jpg

Immediate

TaskTimePredecessor

A 0.1 min. -

B 0.7 min. A

C 1.0 min. B

D 0.5 min. C

E 0.2 min. D

2.5 min.

D

E

C

A

B

0.2

0.7

1.0

0.5

0.1

Assembly Line Balancing Example

Suppose we want to produce 300 units/day and 8 hours are available each day.

Can not use only 2 workstations! Must use 3.

Efficiency=2.5/(3*1.6) = 52.1%


Assembly line balancing example69 l.jpg

D

E

C

A

B

0.2

0.7

1.0

0.5

0.1

D

E

C

A

B

0.2

0.7

1.0

0.5

0.1

Assembly Line Balancing Example

Both of these can produce 300/day in 8 hours.

Efficiency=2.5/(3*1.6) = 52.1%

Better balance!

Efficiency=2.5/(3*1.6) = 52.1%

Note: this line could produce 300 units in 5 hours (1 per minute) Efficiency=2.5/(3*1.0) = 83.3%


Assembly line balancing example70 l.jpg

D

E

C

A

B

0.2

0.7

1.0

0.5

0.1

Assembly Line Balancing Example

If 2 workstations were required, then it will take more than 8 hours to produce 300 units.

Cycle time = 1.7 minutes

Efficiency=2.5/(2*1.7) = 73.5%

Time to produce 300 units

1.7 min/unit*300 units = 510 minutes = 8.5 hours


Assembly line balancing heuristics l.jpg

Assembly Line Balancing Heuristics

  • Longest (or shortest) task time.

    • Choose task with longest (or shortest) operation time.

  • Most following tasks.

    • Choose task with largest number of following tasks.

  • Ranked positional weight.

    • Choose task where the sum of the times for each following task is longest.

  • Least number of following tasks.

    • Choose task with fewest subsequent tasks.


Ranked positional weight heuristic l.jpg

Ranked Positional Weight Heuristic

Positional weight = Sum of times for a task and all tasks that must follow it.

1. Calculate positional weight for each task.

2. Assign task with largest positional weight to the earliest workstation where it fits.

- Obey precedence relations.

- Do not exceed cycle time.

3. Repeat step 2 until all tasks are assigned.


Line balancing example 2 l.jpg

Immediate

TaskTimePredecessor

A 0.2 min.-

B 0.6 min. A,C

C 0.5 min.-

D 0.3 min.-

E 1.0 min. B,D

F 0.2 min.D

G 0.9 min. E,F

3.7 min.

Line Balancing Example 2

Suppose we want to produce 450 units/day and 8 hours are available each day.


Line balancing example 274 l.jpg

Immediate

TaskTimePredecessor

A 0.2 min. -

B 0.6 min. A,C

C 0.5 min. -

D 0.3 min. -

E 1.0 min. B,D

F 0.2 min. D

G 0.9 min. E,F

3.7 min.

Line Balancing Example 2

Suppose we want to produce 450 units/day and 8 hours are available each day.


Precedence diagram example 2 l.jpg

Precedence Diagram - Example 2

0.2

A

0.6

B

1.0

0.5

E

0.9

C

G

0.3

0.2

D

F


Example 2 positional weight l.jpg

Immediate Positional

TaskTimePredecessorweight

A 0.2 min.- 2.7

B 0.6 min. A,C 2.5

C 0.5 min.- 3.0

D 0.3 min.- 2.4

E 1.0 min. B,D 1.9

F 0.2 min.D 1.1

G 0.9 min. E,F 0.9

3.7 min.

Example 2 - Positional Weight


Example 2 assign tasks l.jpg

ImmediatePositional

TaskTimePredecessorweight

A 0.2 min. - 2.7

B 0.6 min. A,C 2.5

C 0.5 min. - 3.0

D 0.3 min. - 2.4

E 1.0 min. B,D 1.9

F 0.2 min. D 1.1

G 0.9 min. E,F 0.9

3.7 min.

Example 2 - Assign Tasks

Cycle time = 1.07 min.

N = 4 workstations

WS1WS2WS3WS4

C(0.5)

A(0.2)


Example 2 assign tasks cont l.jpg

ImmediatePositional

TaskTimePredecessorweight

A 0.2 min. - 2.7

B 0.6 min. A,C 2.5

C 0.5 min. - 3.0

D 0.3 min. - 2.4

E 1.0 min. B,D 1.9

F 0.2 min. D 1.1

G 0.9 min. E,F 0.9

3.7 min.

Example 2 - Assign Tasks (cont.)

Cycle time = 1.07 min.

N = 4 workstations

WS1WS2WS3WS4

C(0.5) B(0.6)

A(0.2)

D(0.3)


Example 2 assign tasks cont79 l.jpg

ImmediatePositional

TaskTimePredecessorweight

A 0.2 min. - 2.7

B 0.6 min. A,C 2.5

C 0.5 min. - 3.0

D 0.3 min. - 2.4

E 1.0 min. B,D 1.9

F 0.2 min. D 1.1

G 0.9 min. E,F 0.9

3.7 min.

Example 2 - Assign Tasks (cont.)

Cycle time = 1.07 min.

N = 4 workstations

WS1WS2WS3WS4

C(0.5) B(0.6) E(1.0) G(0.9)

A(0.2)F(0.2)

D(0.3)

Efficiency = 3.7/(4*1.07) = 86.4%


Precedence diagram example 280 l.jpg

Precedence Diagram - Example 2

0.2

A

0.6

WS3

B

1.0

0.5

E

0.9

C

G

0.3

WS4

0.2

D

F

WS1

WS2


Example 2 final comment l.jpg

Immediate

TaskTimePredecessor

A 0.2 min. -

B 0.6 min. A,C

C 0.5 min. -

D 0.3 min. -

E 1.0 min. B,D

F 0.2 min. D

G 0.9 min. E,F

3.7 min.

Example 2 - Final Comment

Could use a cycle time of 1 minute & produce 450 units in 7.5 hours

Efficiency = 3.7/(4*1.0) = 92.5%

WS1WS2WS3WS4

C(0.5) B(0.6) E(1.0) G(0.9)

A(0.2)F(0.2)

D(0.3)


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