Weather systems cloud types
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Weather Systems & Cloud Types. Air Masses. Bodies of air that bring distinctive weather features to the country. A mass of air in air that is very uniform in temperature, pressure, and humidity. Polar = cold Tropical = warm Maritime = moist Continental = dry.

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Weather Systems & Cloud Types

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Weather systems cloud types

Weather Systems &Cloud Types


Air masses

Air Masses

  • Bodies of air that bring distinctive weather features to the country.

  • A mass of air in air that is very uniform in temperature, pressure, and humidity.

    • Polar = cold

    • Tropical = warm

    • Maritime = moistContinental = dry


Air masses layers of atmosphere

Air Masses & Layers of Atmosphere

  • May cover several millions of square kilometers and extend vertically throughout the troposphere


Pressure of air masses

Pressure of Air Masses

  • Air Pressure = weight of air acting on an area

  • Warm Air has more KE and spreads out more.

  • Therefore, it’s less dense and has less weight .

  • This means less pressure.

  • Cold Air has less KE and spreads out less.

  • Therefore, it’s more dense and has more weight .

  • This means more pressure.


Pressure systems

Pressure Systems

  • Uneven heating of the Earth’s surface causes differences in air pressure

    • Warm Air  Low Pressure System

    • Cold Air  High Pressure System

  • WarmAir Masses have high KE, spread out,

  • are less dense, and have LOWPressure.

  • The warm air evaporates water. It has high humidity Storms

  • ColdAir Masses have less KE, sink together,

  • are more dense, and have HIGH Pressure.

  • The cold air can’t evaporate water. It has low humidity Dry air


Weather map fronts systems jet stream

Weather Map: Fronts, Systems, Jet stream


Weather fronts

Weather Fronts

A front is the transition zone between

two air masses of different density.

Fronts extend not only in the horizontal direction,

but in the vertical as well.


Cold front air masses

Cold Front & Air Masses


Global wind patterns

Global Wind Patterns


Cold front on a weather map

Cold Front on a Weather Map


Warm front on a weather map

Warm Front on a Weather Map


Occluded stationary fronts

Occluded (Stationary) Fronts


Wind patterns

Wind Patterns

  • Air flows from areas of high pressure into those of low pressure

  • Northern Hemisphere: air flow from areas of high to low pressure is deflected to the right; producing a clockwise circulation around an area of High pressure.

  • Counter-clockwise circulation around an area of Low pressure.


Wind circulation patterns

Wind Circulation Patterns


Weather forecasting

Weather Forecasting

  • Tools Used:

    • Thermometer (temperature)

    • Barometer (pressure)

    • Hygrometer (humidity)

    • Radar (storm & cloud movement)

    • Satellite imagery (storm & cloud movement)

  • National Weather Service Boise Site:

  • http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/boi/

  • Weather Channel Site:

  • http://www.weather.com/


Weather maps

Weather Maps


Climate

Climate

  • Average of all weather conditions in area over a long time

    • Ex: temperature, precipitation

  • Climate is cyclically influenced by ocean currents & temperatures

    • El Niño & La Niña

  • These variations alter:

    • surface wind

    • surface ocean temperatures

    • deep ocean temperatures


Climate cycles

Climate Cycles

  • Caused by variations in ocean currents & temperatures

    • Cycles occur every 3-7 years

    • El Niño: characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

    • La Niña: characterized by unusually coldocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific


Normal vs el ni o ocean temperatures

Normal vs. El Niño Ocean Temperatures

Unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

Winters are warmer than normal in the Northern States &

cooler than normal in the Southern States


Normal vs la ni a ocean temperatures

Normal vs. La NiñaOcean Temperatures

Unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

Winters are cooler than normal in the Northwest &

warmer than normal in the Southeast


Cloud characterization

Cloud Characterization

  • Clouds are characterized by:

    • Height above the ground

      • Cirro

      • Alto

      • Nimbo

    • Type of cloud

      • Cirrus

      • Cumulus

      • Stratus – any cloud type can form layers


Cloud levels types

Cloud Levels & Types


Cloud levels types1

Cloud Levels & Types


Cloud levels types2

Cloud Levels & Types


Layers of the atmosphere

Layers of the Atmosphere


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