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MIS 215 Module 0 Intro to Data Structures. Where are we?. MIS215. Basic Algorithms. Introduction. List Structures. Advanced structures. Search Techniques. Intro to Java, Course. Sorting Techniques. Java lang. basics. Linked Lists. Hashtables. Binary Search. Graphs, Trees .

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Mis 215 module 0 intro to data structures

MIS 215 Module 0Intro to Data Structures

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Where are we
Where are we?


Basic Algorithms


List Structures

Advanced structures



Intro to

Java, Course

Sorting Techniques

Java lang.





Binary Search







Fast Sorting algos

(quicksort, mergesort)






MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Today s buzzwords
Today’s Buzzwords

  • Data Structures

  • Algorithms

  • Efficiency of algorithms

  • Analysis of algorithms

  • Programming = Data Structures + Algorithms

  • Programming as a problem-solving method

  • Elluminate

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Nuts and bolts of this class
Nuts and Bolts of this Class

  • Elluminate

    • A tool for Synchronous Online Collaboration

    • This course will be all about collaboration

    • Start by clicking the link in the Course Calendar in WebCT

    • Allow Elluminate to install

    • Do not click on the microphone while in class! (believe me – bad things will happen if you do)

  • Dr. Java and JDK 1.5

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Elluminate features we will use
Elluminate features we will use

  • Definitely:

    • Private and moderator chats

    • Drawing board

    • Polling and quizzing

  • Possibly:

    • Project presentations

    • Out-of-class meetings

    • Online office hours

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Introduction to data structures
Introduction to Data Structures

  • What are data structures/ruptures & algorithms good for?

  • Overview of data structures.

  • Overview of algorithms

  • Some definitions

  • OO programming

  • S/W engineering

  • Java Library Data Structures

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

What s a program
What’s a program?

  • So, far, if you’ve only done CS 208/209/equivalent, what has a program been?

  • Probably, just doing some simple data manipulation..

    • store some grades in an array

    • average the grades, find min/max

    • anything else??

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Overview of data structures
Overview of Data Structures

  • Arrays (unordered and ordered)

  • Stacks, Queues, Lists

    • why did I lump these all together?

  • Trees (binary, red-black [?], 2-3-4 [?])

  • Hash table

  • Heap

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Our approach to problem solving this quarter
Our approach to Problem Solving this quarter

  • Dr. Java

  • Integrated Development Environment

  • Edit – Compile – Test – Debug

  • Unfortunately CaTS won’t install in labs

  • Fortunately it doesn’t take much to install

  • Lets use Dr. Java to write our first program

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Helloworld java

public class HelloWorld {

public void run() {

System.out.println("Hello Java World!");


public static void main (String [] args) {

HelloWorld tpo = new HelloWorld();




MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Dissecting helloworld
Dissecting HelloWorld

  • Every program in Java is (at least) one class

  • Each class has one or more methods.

  • The class that runs the program is the main class, and has a main(…) method

  • Typically, you should create an instance of a class in your main method, and call methods of that instance

  • That’s exactly what HelloWorld Does!

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Lets do a little more
Lets do a little more…

public class GradeCalculator {

private int score = 843; // Score of the student

public void run() {

char letgrade = ''; //single quotes for characters

// Do what is needed here to find the letter grade

System.out.println("The student's letter grade is" +



public static void main (String [] args) {

GradeCalculator gc = new GradeCalculator();




MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Dissecting gradecalculator
Dissecting GradeCalculator

  • First finish it ..

  • What is the logic for finding the letter grade from the numeric score?

  • What is that “private int score;” business?

  • What are our alternatives?

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

The input class
The Input Class

  • A stable class for easily receiving input from the users

  • Documentation of this class is available at http://www.wright.edu/~arijit.sengupta/mis215/samples/complexity/Input.html

  • How do you use it?

    • Create an instance of the Input class

    • Call the appropriate method (with or without an argument)

  • Why should you use the Input class?

    • Stable – includes some built-in error checks!

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Lets try it
Lets try it!

  • Change GradeCalculator to ask the user for the numeric score

  • Where should you create the Input class?

  • What happens if you call the run() method multiple times?

  • What is a better way?

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Going ahead practising loops
Going ahead – practising loops

  • Write a program that asks the user to guess a number between 1 and 100.

  • In a loop, let the computer make a guess, and the user says G/L/M (greater/less/match)

  • Continue until you get a match

  • Report the number of tries

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Cfc comment first coding
CFC – Comment-First Coding

  • What is it?

  • Why comments?

    • Descriptive

    • Think in English instead of the cryptic code

    • Will always compile!!!

    • Self-documenting

  • Why comment-first?

  • How do you fill out the comments?

  • Lets try it!

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Only the run method now
Only the run() method now..

public void run() {

// Step 1. Initialization

// Step 2.

// Step 3.

// Step 4.

// Step 5.


MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Lets describe the steps
Lets describe the steps

public void run() {

// Step 1. Initialization

// set up the needed variables

// Step 2.

// Step 3.

// Step 4.

// Step 5.


MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Finally fill in the code
Finally, fill in the code

public void run() {

// Step 1. Initialization

// set up the needed variables

int steps = 0, guess = 0; // any other variables?

// Step 2.

// Step 3.

// Step 4.

// Step 5.


MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Now what
Now what?

  • Practice CFC – we will try to use this diligently this quarter.

  • Every assignment you submit must have your names as comments at the top of the file, and all code must be extensively commented, preferably CFC-ed

  • Did I just make up a verb there? 

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro


  • Lets try to have fun as you write code

  • Remember, programs do what we tell them to do – so we are the boss!

  • There is nothing like “IT is not working” – IT always works – just like you tell it to – maybe you didn’t tell it to do the right thing!

  • Practice, practice, practice… makes it perfect

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Part 2 analysis of algorithms
Part 2 – Analysis of Algorithms

There are many different ways to solve the same problem

How do you tell if one way would be better than another?

Analysis of algorithms is a method for identifying the efficiency of an algorithm

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

Order notation big oh little oh
Order Notation (big-Oh/little-oh)

For this course, we are only going to use the big Oh notation

An algorithm is described to have the complexity of O(some function over n)

For example, Mergesort has the complexity O(n lg n)

No – that wasn’t a typo – lg(n) is log2(n)

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

So what does it mean
So what does it mean?

Lets first see how these functions behave:

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

So can you compare now
So.. Can you compare now?

  • Complexity of Bubblesort is O(n2), and complexity of Mergesort is O(n lg n). Which one is more efficient?

    • Bubblesort

    • Mergesort

    • Both are the same

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

How do you determine complexity of an algorithm
How do you determine complexity of an algorithm?

Typically involves mathematical induction

For the purpose of this class, try to find the main loop of the algorithm, and determine the number of comparisons (or whichever is the most important operation is)

Try to find an association between the input and the number of operations

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro

The complexitydemo java program
The ComplexityDemo.java program

Compile and run it – don’t worry too much about the source code at the moment

See how the time behaves as you run the different algorithms

If you feel adventurous, change the code a bit and try different input numbers

(careful – some will not run for large inputs)

MIS215 Module 0 - Intro