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EARTHQUAKES & SEISMIC WAVES. CHAPTER 6.2. What is an earthquake?. The shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface Caused by plate movement. Where does an earthquake start? .

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Earthquakes seismic waves

EARTHQUAKES & SEISMIC WAVES

CHAPTER 6.2


What is an earthquake
What is an earthquake?

  • The shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface

  • Caused by plate movement


Where does an earthquake start
Where does an earthquake start?

  • Focus: area beneath Earth’s surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake

  • Epicenter: point on the surface directly above the focus


How does an earthquake move
How does an earthquake move?

  • Seismic waves carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus, through Earth’s interior, and across the surface.



P waves
p waves

  • First waves to arrive

  • Compress and expand the ground like an accordion

  • Crust vibrates forward and back along the path of the wave

  • Can damage buildings

  • Travels through solids and liquids


S waves
S WAVES

  • Secondary waves

  • Seismic waves that vibrate from side to side as well as up and down

  • Cannot travel through liquids

  • Shakes structures violently


Moves like an accordion

Moves like ‘the wave’ at a football game


Surface waves
SURFACE WAVES

  • Move more slowly than P waves and S waves, but can produce severe ground movements

  • Can make the ground roll like ocean waves or shake buildings from side to side



What are the 3 ways to measure an earthquake
What are the 3 ways to measure an earthquake?

  • 1. Mercalli scale: rates the earthquakes according to level of damage at a given place (pg 191)


Mercalli scale xii in la paz bolivia
Mercalli Scale XII in La Paz, Bolivia



  • 3 based on the size of the earthquake’s seismic waves. Moment Magnitude Scale: rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake


Geologists use the seismic waves to locate an earthquake
Geologists use the seismic waves to locate based on the size of the earthquake’s seismic wavesan earthquake….

EPICENTER


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