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Lincoln and Douglass, on Abolition War. Road to Abolition War Ben Butler’s Contraband Policy (May 1861) First Confiscation Act (August 1861) Fremont issues first Emancipation Proclamation Gen. David Hunter emancipates slaves in S.C., GA, FL Second Confiscation Act

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Lincoln and Douglass, on Abolition War

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Lincoln and Douglass, on Abolition War


Road to Abolition War

  • Ben Butler’s Contraband Policy (May 1861)

  • First Confiscation Act (August 1861)

  • Fremont issues first Emancipation Proclamation

  • Gen. David Hunter emancipates slaves in S.C., GA, FL

  • Second Confiscation Act

  • Preliminary and Final Emancipation Proclamations


Why is Emancipation Proclamation Important?

  • Publicizes emancipation policy

  • Gives 2nd Confiscation Act teeth.

  • Massive arming of black troops

  • Moral war: message to Europe.


Effects of Emancipation Proclamation in North

  • Slaves crucial source of Union power


Effect of Emancipation Proclamation in North:

  • Fuels “Copperhead” Democratic peace movement.

    • Copperheads receive support from Confederacy.

    • Coincides with Northern conscription (state, then federal)


National Conscription

In North:

  • March 1863

  • avoid it by hiring substitute or paying $300.

    In South:

  • April 1862; first conscription law in American history.

  • Avoid it by hiring substitute or paying $300

  • Second Conscription Act in October 1862

    • “Twenty Negro Law”

    • Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight


Mathew Brady, Clement L. Vallandigham, albumen print, c. 1862


“Clement L. Vallandigham—Photographed by Brady,” Harper’s Weekly, June 6, 1863


“Arrest of Hon. C. L. Vallandigham, at Dayton, Ohio, May 5,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated, May 23, 1863 (front page image)


Effect of Emancipation Proclamation:

In North:

  • Fuels Northerners who had believed that the war to preserve Union must also be a war to end slavery.

  • Fuels Interracial Collaboration:

    • Fight common enemy

    • Need each other

  • Fuels Northern Racism


  • Effect of Emancipation Proclamation:

    In South:

    • Fuels Hatred Against North

      • Emancipation treated as slave insurrection

      • Jefferson Davis:

        • He issues order to kill or enslave captured black soldiers.


    Effect of Emancipation Proclamation:

    In South:

    • Further Divides the South:

      • Convinces slaves that they have powerful ally

      • Reduced risks in fleeing to Union lines and serving Union army.

    • Non-slaveholding Whites Feel Alienated:

      • Second Conscription Act: Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.

      • Rise of Southern Unionism.


    The South Against the South

    • Blacks

    • Southern Unionists


    The North against the North

    • Rise of Copperheads and their alliance with the Confederacy.


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