Critical features of tier 2 interventions
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Critical Features of Tier 2 Interventions. Billie Jo Rodriguez, PhD, NCSP Webinar Presented to the Texas Behavior Support Network February 6, 2013 Special Thanks to: Sarah Falcon, PhD Shawn Fletcher, MS Cindy Anderson, Phd. Objectives.

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Critical Features of Tier 2 Interventions

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Critical features of tier 2 interventions

Critical Features of Tier 2 Interventions

Billie Jo Rodriguez, PhD, NCSP

Webinar Presented to

the Texas Behavior Support Network

February 6, 2013

Special Thanks to:

Sarah Falcon, PhD

Shawn Fletcher, MS

Cindy Anderson, Phd


Objectives

Objectives

  • Discuss who typically succeeds and why, in response to tier 2 support

  • Review critical features of tier 2 intervention systems

    • use this format to evaluate interventions you are considering

  • Walk-though a sample evaluation of tier 2 intervention (other than CICO)

  • Resources

    • Article by Anderson & Borgmeier

    • Tier 2 intervention checklist

    • Tier 2 intervention inventory

    • Tier 2 assessment & action plan


Why do tier 2 interventions work

Why do Tier 2 Interventions Work?

What are some reasons why Tier 2 interventions are effective for students?

When (and for whom) are they less likely to be effective?


Critical features of tier 2 interventions

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


Why tier 2 interventions

Why Tier 2 Interventions?

It can take 2-4 weeks (at least!) to conduct an intensive, individualized intervention:

Complete Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)

Develop a behavior support plan

Train everyone in implementation

Students can receive support within 72 hours with a tier 2 group intervention

*Are effective for about 67 - 80% (CICO) of students!


Who would benefit from tier 2 support

Who would benefit from tier 2 support?

  • For students “who”

    • Group interventions

  • Frequently late

  • Homework incomplete

  • Regularly “talk-out”

  • Have few friends

  • Lack of connection to adults

  • Students who teachers “can handle” but who are a challenge


Tier 2 intervention what it s not

Tier 2 Intervention: What it’s not

Not an intervention for a classroom or a whole school—this is Tier 1

Not an individualized intervention

Does not require any intensive assessment

Does not take longer than 10 min. for any teacher to implement


Tier 2 intervention critical features

Tier 2 Intervention Critical Features

  • Continuously available-

    • Everyone knows the intervention

  • Rapid access to intervention

    • Ideally 48-72 hours; sometimes groups rotate on a calendar schedule

  • Low effort for teachers/staff to implement

    • Generic intervention

      • Allows students to move back into “green zone” more efficiently

    • Provide schools with efficient system to support multiple students

      • Efficient access to data collection and initial problem solving

  • Consistent with school-wide expectations

    • Goal to get back to green!

  • Continuous monitoring

    • If program is not self-sufficient & requires significant organization by referring staff… it’s not a tier 2 intervention! & not just the “card”

    • Peer buddies, homework club, mentoring interventions


Why do tier 2 interventions work1

Why do Tier 2 Interventions Work?

Increase structure/routines for student

Increase contingent feedback for student

Increase explicit instruction on relevant social skills & plan details

Programs can be applied in all school locations

Increase recognition for appropriate behavior

Linking school & home support & academic support, as needed

Focus is on self-management, as intervention is implemented over time


We re ready for a new tier 2

We’re ready for a new tier 2

  • Typically train schools to start with CICO system

    • CICO easily aligns with critical features

    • CICO easily connects with SWPBIS

    • CICO has built in data collection via point cards

    • CICO is easily modified for fading/intensifying

  • Unfortunately, there are few evidence-based tier 2 social behavior interventions

  • Instead, look at your needs across groups of students

  • Ensure existing or new interventions fit into a systematic framework


Critical features of tier 2 interventions

Borgemeier, 2009 (draft)


Critical features of tier 2 interventions

Anderson et al.


Intervention purpose rationale

Intervention Purpose/Rationale

What behaviors are addressed by this intervention?

What are behaviors are you trying to reduce? Increase?

What functions of behavior will this intervention address?

What’s our capacity?


Intervention

Intervention

  • Possible Examples-

    • CICO, social skills groups, homework club, attendance club, recess round-up

  • Consistency-

    • Is the intervention consistent with the school-wide system?

    • Goal is to get back to “green”

  • Efficiency-

    • Can the intervention be utilized by multiple students without modification/adjustment?


Intervention cont d

Intervention cont’d

  • Instruction-

    • Does the intervention include instruction on pro-social behavior? Components of the intervention?

      • Overview of the intervention

      • Prompts for the 1st week

      • Assent/consent

      • Teaching the intervention (Examples and non-example practice)

    • Goal setting

    • Determining Incentives etc

  • Practice-

    • Does the intervention include frequent opportunities to practice pro-social behavior?

  • Acknowledgement-

    • Are there opportunities to receive feedback/incentives for engaging in pro-social behavior?

    • Varied is best (immediate/delayed, range of functions)


Intervention cont d1

Intervention cont’d

  • Communication-

    • Is there a process to train and communicate regularly with families, participating staff, as well as all staff

      • How will staff be trained

    • How do you inform parents/secure consent?

    • How do you train parents to respond to school info that is shared?

  • Documentation-

    • Are there written materials that include orientation and procedures for staff, substitutes, families, & volunteers

      • Create a manual that describes all intervention procedures (how does it work, who is it for, etc)

        • manual needs to provide enough detail that a staff member could look at it and get a good understanding of the system


Purpose rationale

Purpose/Rationale

What behaviors are addressed by this intervention?

What are behaviors are you trying to reduce? Increase?

What functions of behavior will this intervention address?

What’s our capacity?


Student identification selection

Student Identification & Selection

  • Who will be successful with this intervention?

  • What are deal breakers?

  • Decision Rules for inclusion

    • Use these in a majority of cases

  • What data sources will you use

    • Request for assistance-

    • ODRs and/or minors-

      • Data validity

    • Internalizing behavior decision rules

    • Attendance

  • What needs to happen for better data consistency?


Critical features of tier 2 interventions

Student Identification:

Consistency is key in your school-wide systems


Successful students not successful students

Tier 2 Intervention Candidates

Successful StudentsNot Successful Students

Students whose behaviors serve the same function as the intervention

Students whose behaviors are in the “yellow zone”

Students who are displaying mild-moderate levels of problem behavior at a time consistent with intervention target

Students who need extra opportunities to practice a skill

  • Students whose behavior is in the “red zone”

    • Intense/severe problem behaviors

    • Safety is an issue

  • Students whose behavior does not match the intervention function

  • Students who only have problems in a specific setting that is not matched to the intervention


Logistics

Logistics

Coordination

Staff involved

Skills needed

Time required by implementers

Who will monitor progress


Logistics1

Logistics

  • Coordination

    • Skill set

    • Must have FTE/time allocated for position

      • What’s the back-up plan

    • Responsibilities include:

    • Maintaining/reviewing data

      • Planning for fading or intensifying interventions

    • Running team meetings

    • Checking intervention fidelity

    • Training staff/students/families

    • Variety of organizational tasks (e.g., who will make sure that Johnny has lunch with principal, who will give feedback to Johnny’s teacher on how he is doing)


Progress monitoring

Progress Monitoring

  • What data will be collected

    • by whom, and how frequently? 

    • what information system is used?

  • How often will progress monitoring occur

    • who is responsible?

  • What team will monitor this data

  • How will fidelity be assessed—are we doing what we said we would do?


Fading intensifying

Fading & Intensifying

  • Decision rules for intensifying

    • What defines lack of progress toward the goal—

    • Typical decision rules, guidelines from ‘Responding to Problem Behavior’

  • Process for intensifying the intervention

    • Possible reasons/solutions for not meeting goals

    • Simplest changes first

  • Decision rules for fading

    • What is the goal & how will we know when its been achieved?

    • Typical decision rules

  • Process for fading the intervention

    • Gradually remove components of the intervention (goals change, self-monitoring)

    • Use of “phases”


How many students have been successful

How many students have been successful?

How many students have been successful?

How many students have been referred?

Is the program meeting the needs of our students?


Structured recess example

Structured Recess Example


Intervention1

Intervention

  • Decided on structured recess activities with P.E. Teacher

  • Rules taught & practiced in P.E.

  • All recess duty staff were trained on “Systematic Supervision” methods

    • Observe duty staff 3 x per year

    • Schedule created, adult assigned to supervise

  • Games/activities offered at all recesses

  • Encourage all duty staff to reinforce positive behavior with Gotcha cards at recess

    • Gotcha card drawing envelopes put up in gym


Intervention2

Intervention

  • Consistency

    • Teach & reinforce using matrix & school-wide expectations

  • Efficiency

    • The program is instituted the same way for all students

  • Instruction

    • Students receive instruction on appropriate behavior during recess activities

    • Recess staff receive instruction in systematic supervision

  • Practice

    • Instruction for student includes lots of practice and staff continue to receive support feedback on their skills too


Intervention cont d2

Intervention cont’d

  • Acknowledgement

    • Staff focus on delivering gotcha cards for safe behavior

    • Easy to turn in

  • Communication

    • Parents are contacted and students agree to participate

    • All staff received overview of the program. Recess staff receive more intense training

  • Documentation

    • Parent/substitute letter

    • Overview of the program included in the manual for next year


Purpose rationale1

Purpose/Rationale

Problem: 08-09 School Year from September to April

66 minors or referrals were written for unsafe playground behavior

Goal:

Students at John Wayne Elementary receiving minors on the playground during recess will decrease by 15% during the 09-10 school year.


Student identification selection1

Student Identification & Selection

  • Minors tracked by SWIS

  • “Referrals by Location” report used to determine area of need in building

  • Playground 3rd highest minor/referral area

    • 3rd and 4th grades especially high

  • Students with 3+ minors or 2+ majors on the playground


Logistics2

Logistics

  • Coordination

    • Counselor/other specialist role

  • Staff involved

    • IAs, some teachers, principal, specialist

  • Skills needed

    • Systematic supervision

  • Time required by implementers

    • Training time, otherwise built-into job description

  • Who will monitor progress?

    • IPBS screening team

    • Monitors progress of all tier 2 (& 3 interventions)


Progress monitoring1

Progress Monitoring

  • What data will be collected?

    • Minors/Majors from the playground

    • What information system is used? - SWIS

  • How often will progress monitoring occur?

    • Who is responsible? –coordinator will review weekly

  • What team will monitor this data?

    • IPBS

  • How will fidelity be assessed—are we doing what we said we would do?

    • 3x a year observation during recess minimum

    • Provide support/feedback regularly – invite to IPBS meeting


Fading intensifying1

Fading & Intensifying

  • Decision rules for intensifying

    • Lack of progress toward the goal—

      • 2 minors/majors in a 2 week period

  • Process for intensifying the intervention

    • Possible reasons/solutions for not meeting goals

    • Simplest changes first

  • Decision rules for fading

    • What is the goal & how will we know when its been achieved?

      • 4 weeks without minor/major

  • Process for fading the intervention

    • Gradually remove components of the intervention (goals change, self-monitoring)


Results

Results

Minors/Majors for unsafe behavior on the playground

08-09: 66 minors/majors

09-10: 33 minors/majors

This is a 50% reduction!


Challenges

Challenges

Coordinating training

Remembering to make calendar

Muddy field

Finding time to evaluate staff on Systematic Supervision techniques


Big ideas

BIG IDEAS

  • Just as Tier 1 is more than expectations, tickets, and prizes, Tier 2 should incorporate SYSTEMS features

  • Implementing Tier 2 interventions systems may highlight areas of weakness in Tier 1

    • Validity of data for decision making

    • Ensuring expectations are clear

    • Keeping tier 1 exciting

  • Establishing efficient systems for Tier 2 to meet the needs of multiple students

  • Ensure system is well documented prior to implementation and supports are in place

  • Evaluate success of intervention

    • Implementation

    • Outcomes


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