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1.0 Abstract. 3.0 Rationale – Why the need for watershed management tools?. W ater for Life: Alberta’s Strategy for Sustainability e ndorsed a partnership approach to watershed planning and management.

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1.0 Abstract

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1 0 abstract

1.0 Abstract

3.0 Rationale – Why the need for watershed management tools?

  • Water for Life: Alberta’s Strategy for Sustainability endorsed a partnership approach to watershed planning and management.

  • The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of a GIS data framework and a suite of hydrology tools being developed to support watershed management in Alberta.

  • The poster outlines the rationale and vision for the work, progress to date, and highlights some examples that show data quality and utility.

  • Project milestones include:

    • progress on a GIS database using an ArcHydro framework;

    • enhancements on DEMs and live update on time-series data;

    • development of tools to delineate watersheds and extract key watershed characteristics and data; and

    • coupling ArcHydro capabilities with hydrology models.

  • As seven established Watershed Planning and Advisory Councils (WPACs) become mature over time, their planning tools and requirements will become increasingly more complex (e.g. near real-time modelling).

  • Alberta is leading the way to develop, design, and implement integrated resource (air, land, water & biodiversity) management plans to meet the Land Use Framework’s legislated mandate.

  • GIS and ArcHydro provide a strong foundation and start point for progress down this path, and

2.0 Background

are well suited to the adaptive management challenges of Alberta.

  • The Province of Alberta includes some of the most diverse terrain and waterscapes in North America.

  • Totaling 661,000 km2, Alberta’s landscapes vary from hot dry badlands, vast unbroken forests, alpine tundra, massive icefields, rich agricultural lands to rolling grasslands.

  • These landscapes are also home to a rich diversity of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians.

4.0 Vision – ArcHydro as a Foundation for Watershed Management

Factors Influencing the Variability of Alberta’s Natural Environments

GIS:

GIS:

HYDAT

Streams &

Visualize, manage,

Visualize, manage,

Monitoring

manipulate, analyze, and

manipulate, analyze, and

WISKI

Drainage

help to model temporal

help to model temporal

Areas

and spatial processes

and spatial processes

Climate

Hydrogaphy

Channels

Ground

Alberta

ArcHydro

Framework

Water

Surface

Terrain

Water

Rainfall

  • Alberta is also a busy place and is facing significant pressure on its biodiversity, air, land and water resources!

  • Pressures include activities related to hydrocarbon recovery, agriculture, forestry, mining, expanding settlements, water control structures, municipal and industrial discharges, and linear disturbance such as transportation, pipelines and seismic exploration.

  • These pressures pose complex social, economic and environmental challenges.

Quality

& Snow

Ortho

-

EMS

Photography

Data accessed through GoA Citrix and Canada Internet Map Service

Water Use

Land Cover/Use

Time Series Data

Geospatial Data

Time Series Data

Geospatial Data

Naturalized

Soil

Flow

Understanding the Pressures on Alberta’s Natural Environments

ArcHydro

ArcHydro

ArcHydro

ArcHydro

Enterprise

Geology

Tools

Tools

Geodatabases

Geodatabases

Data Warehouse

Remote

Sensing

Air, Land and

Biodiversity

Automated Watershed

Delineation & Characterization

LiDAR

Modelling

Interfaces

Water Resources Models

Water allocation (e.g., AWAIT)

Water allocation (e.g., AWAIT)

SOE reporting

SOE reporting

125

125

125

125

Natural flow

Natural flow

Natural flow

Natural flow

100

100

100

100

Desktop (Hydrological)

Desktop (Hydrological)

Desktop (Hydrological)

Desktop (Hydrological)

SSRB IFN (Holistic)

SSRB IFN (Holistic)

SSRB IFN (Holistic)

SSRB IFN (Holistic)

75

75

75

75

Discharge (m

Discharge (m

Discharge (m

Discharge (m

50

50

50

50

Data accessed through GoA Citrix and ministry websites

25

25

25

25

12

12

12

12

16

16

16

16

20

20

20

20

24

24

24

24

28

28

28

28

32

32

32

32

36

36

36

36

40

40

40

40

44

44

44

44

48

48

48

48

52

52

52

52

Week of year

Week of year

Week of year

Week of year

Naturalized flow

Naturalized flow

IFN recommendation

IFN recommendation

Flood mapping

Flood mapping

Groundwater mapping

Groundwater mapping

Groundwater mapping

Groundwater mapping

Water quality mapping

Water quality mapping


1 0 abstract

Water Budget Summary

WISKI

EDW

TS 1

TS 5

TS 2

TS 3

TS 4

AB_ArcHydro

AB_ArcHydro

Applications

Applications

Watershed/Climatic Characteristics

ArcHydro

Geodatabases

ArcHydro

Tools

MIKE SHE Integrated

Hydrologic Modelling

Simulated Hydrograph

Channel Characteristics

DHI (http://www.dhigroup.com)

5.0 AB-ArcHydro: Progress to Date

  • SDE geodatabases created for each of the 18 ‘major’ basins in the province (stream definition of 5 km2)

  • AB-ArcHydro is currently accessed two ways:

  • - Stand-alone Desktop ArcGIS

  • - Citrix thin-client

Data Created in AB-ArcHydro

Network

The geometric network

Raster Data

The complex edge feature class

Raw DEM

The hydro junction of the network

Filled DEM

The relationship of hydro junction and

Flow direction

catchment watershed

Flow accumulation

Stream Definition

Daily Time Series Data

Stream Segmentation

Streamflow data

Catchment Grid

Water level data

Slope

Precipitation data

Slope greater than 30%

Snowfall data

Rainfall data

Vector Data

Temperature data

Catchment

Sunshine data

Drainage Line

Snow pillow data

Adjoint Catchment

Humidity data

Drainage Point

Wind speed/direction data

Longest Flow Path For Catchment

AB ArcHydro example for North Saskatchewan River Basin

Evaporation data

Longest Flow Path For Adj.Catchment

Evapotranspiration data

Centroid of Catchment

Natural flow data

Data organized into 18 major basins

Maidment, D.R. 2002. Arc Hydro – GIS for Water Resources, ESRI Press

Others

6.0 AB_ArcHydro: Current and Future Applications and Development

Reconciling the Provincial DEM

Live data links to Department databases

TS 3

  • Versions 1, 3 and 4 of AB_ArcHydro were each published with a time series (TS) database of hydrologic and climate data. Although comprehensive, the data was static in nature. Copies of time series were used to populate the ArcHydro database, meaning that the update of new information (and subsequent corrections to data) requires continued maintenance. The update process depends on resource needs that are not predictable or assured.

  • Version 2 of AB_ArcHydro was produced using the raster Provincial 100m DEM plus high quality hydrography (stream network) that was burned into the DEM.

  • When a Hydrocorrected 25m DEM became available it was used for Version 4 of ArcHydro. It was presumed that since the DEM had been resampled* with the drainage network taken into account, this would be an improvement over ArcHydro 2. (*the 25m grid size was resampled from the 100m DEM, by interpolation)

  • However, user acceptance testing of ArcHydro 4 data set is ongoing as several issues have been identified with the Hydrocorrected Provincial 25m DEM layer. For the moment, ArcHydro 2 remains the endorsed version for watershed delineation purposes.

TS 2

TS 5

TS 1

TS 4

Others

  • While this is workable, in principle it is preferred to reference a single true source of original data, rather than rely on standalone replications. A better solution would be to develop permanent and open data connections to Department information systems (like the WISKI time series manager, or the Enterprise Data Warehouse/EDW) to ensure the most correct and up-to-date information is always presented by AB_ArcHydro.

Alberta Desktop Method Application: Computations and Report

Coupling to Hydrologic Models

Example:

Drainage areas derived for WSC Sub-regions using pour points and the Alberta 25m Hydrocorrected DEM (colour polygons), as compared with prior drainage boundary delineations (black lines)

The “Alberta Desktop Method” Recommendation for Environmental Flows uses historical natural flows to come up with an instream flow recommendation that is fully protective of the aquatic environment and in the absence of reach specific studies. It is typically applied on a weekly time step, meaning that there are 52 recommendations based on the weekly flow duration curve and computed environmental baseflow for that week. This results in fairly routine but intensive computations, and has been automated within an Application that functions with the AB_ArcHydro data.

Areas circled in red indicate places where the hydrocorrected DEM is at significant variance to existing watershed delineations. In both cases this has been tracked to likely DEM errors – canals not being removed from the terrain – resulting in portions of the lower Bow draining south to Oldman (pink) or north to Red Deer (green).

A major goal for establishing a single source of hydrology-related time series and spatial data is to make model development, calibration and operation quicker and easier. Models that can process ArcHydro-compliant databases will be able to seamlessly interface with data sources. It is expected that ArcHydro databases and tools will support models that estimate water budgets, compute natural flows and simulate hydrographs in ungauged basins.

Testing of the MIKE SHE model for several pilot projects has been undertaken (MIKE SHE does not yet directly support ArcHydro but was planning to develop that functionality.)

Word Document

Summary Report

  • A process for reconciling identified variances and known issues arising between different topographic-based datasets needs to be developed. This is a broader initiative than just ArcHydro.

  • It is recognized that no data set is without issues; but migration toward a single, adequately maintained and continually updated topographic data set for routine watershed delineations using common digital methods and tools would be ideal.

Hydrologic Stats/

Summary Charts

Weekly Flow

Recommendations

Historical

Availability Matrix


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