What have radial velocity surveys told
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What have radial velocity surveys told us about (exo)-planetary science?. Ge/Ay133. Discovery space for indirect methods:. Radial velocity. Astrometry. ( r =distance to the star). Mayor, M. & Queloz, D. 1995, Nature, 378, 355. Udry, S. et al. 2002, A&A, 390, 26.

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Ge ay133

What have radial velocity surveys told

us about (exo)-planetary science?

Ge/Ay133


Ge ay133

Discovery space for

indirect methods:

Radial velocity

Astrometry

(r=distance to the star)


Ge ay133

Mayor, M. & Queloz, D. 1995, Nature, 378, 355


Ge ay133

Udry, S. et al. 2002, A&A, 390, 26


Ge ay133

Jovian planets

througout the

0.05-5 AU region.

And…

Updated plots follow.


Ge ay133

No strong preference

for orbital distances…

…except for a

“pile up” of hot

Jupiters at P~3 days.


Ge ay133

Planetary characteristics? Some trend in M versus R (bias?), but

beyond 0.05-0.1 AU, little preference for low eccentricities:


Ge ay133

Eccentricities. II. Short Period Circularization


Ge ay133

Even with incompleteness, strong preference for ~Jovian mass:


Ge ay133

Stars are different, turnover at low mass!

“The brown dwarf

desert”?

Orion IMF

Does this tell us

that stars and

planets form

differently?


Ge ay133

Is there an eccentricity preference w/mass? Not really…

Marcy, G. et al. 2005, astro-ph/0505003


Ge ay133

Is there an eccentricity preference w/mass? Not really, part II…

?

Butler, R.P. et al. 2006, ApJ, 646, 505


Ge ay133

Another clue as to formation: Planet formation efficiency

correlates strongly with metallicity!

Fischer, D.A. & Valenti, J. 2005, ApJ, 622, 1102


Ge ay133

What about planet formation efficiency & stellar mass?

Radial velocity surveys mostly focused on Sun-like stars. Why?

Active

Chromospheres

Low-contrast

Lines

Johnson, J.A et al. 2007, ApJ, 665, 785


Ge ay133

What about planet formation efficiency & stellar mass?

Clever idea for higher

mass A stars:

Look at older systems

that have evolved

off the main sequence.

Johnson, J.A et al. 2007, ApJ, 665, 785


Ge ay133

What about planet formation efficiency & stellar mass?

Two preliminary findings (that are being tested with larger surveys):

1. Planet formation efficiency increases w/mass.

M4 – K7 K5 – F8 F5 - A5

2. The proportion of hot Jupiters decreases w/mass (not observational bias).

Johnson, J.A et al. 2007, ApJ, 665, 785


Ge ay133

What about planetary multiplicity? Complex doppler patterns:


Ge ay133

Summary of several of the known multiple planetary systems:

Marcy, G. et al. 2005, astro-ph/0505003


Ge ay133

Rivera, E.J. et al. 2005,

(see class web site)

A super earth & GJ 876?


Ge ay133

GJ 876 orbits

evolve with time

(expected w/mutual

perturbations)!

What about

other systems?

Rivera, E.J. et al. 2005,

(see class web site)


Ge ay133

A habitable super-Earth? The GJ 581(M3V) system:

Vogt, S.S. et al. 2010,

(arXiv:1009.5733v1)


Ge ay133

HD 168443

b: 7.2 Mj 58 days

c: 17 Mj 1739 days

=1/29.98 ?!

30:1?


Ge ay133

HD 12661

b: 2.3 Mj 263 days

c: 1.6 Mj 1444 days

=1/5.5

11:2?


Ge ay133

47 U Ma

b: 2.5 Mj 1089 days

c: 0.76 Mj 2594 days

=1/2.4


Ge ay133

Gleise 876

b: 1.89 Mj 61 days

c: 0.56 Mj 30 days


Ge ay133

HD 37124

b: 0.75 Mj 152 d

c: 1.2 Mj 1495 d


Ge ay133

ups And

b: 0.69 Mj 4.6 d

c: 1.9 Mj 241.5 d

d: 3.75 Mj 1284 d


Ge ay133

HD 82943

b: 1.63 Mj 444 d

c: 0.88 222 d


Ge ay133

55 Cnc

b: .84 Mj 14.6 d

c: 0.21 Mj 44.3 d

d: 4 Mj 5360 d

3:1!


Ge ay133

What we know:

- ~1% of solar-type stars have Hot Jupiters

  • ~7% of solar-type stars have >Mj planets in the “terrestrial planet” region. Extrapolation of current

  • incompeteness suggests >12% w/planets @ <20 AU.

- multiple planetary systems are ~common

- planetary resonances are ~common

What can explain these properties?


Ge ay133

Disk-star- and protoplanet interactions lead to migration while the gas is present. Core- accretion?

Theory

1 AU at 140 pc

subtends 0.’’007.

Jupiter (5 AU):

V_doppler = 13 m/s

V_orbit = 13 km/s

Simulation G. Bryden, JPL

Thus, need to study objects in this phase…


Ge ay133

Core-accretion models can now be compared to observations:

Data

Planets

versus

metallicity:

Observed

in open

circles.

Ida, S. & Lin, D. 2004, ApJ, 616, 567


Ge ay133

Early disk models held that eccentricities were DAMPED. Not so fast…

Goldreich, P. & Sari, R. 2003, ApJ, 585, 1024

Goldreich

& Sari 2005

Need an

initial

e~0.01.


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