# 科學方法的邏輯思維 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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## 科學方法的邏輯思維

### Research Process(研究過程)p1

Introduction序論

• How did you study the problem?

• 如何解答問題

Method方法

• What did you find?

• 發現什麼

Results結果

• What do these findings mean?

• 結果的意義

Discussion討論

### The Nature of Research(研究過程的五個特色和原則) p3

Systematic(有系統的)

Logical(邏輯)

Empirical(眼見為真)

Reductive(還原)指我們對一個東西的了解.把一個大現象切割切割成多個小單位.我們去了解每一個小單位.我們只要了解每一個小單位.我們只要把每個小單位湊起來.我們就可以了解整個大現象(ex.只要我們了解電腦的每一個零件.我們就瞭解整個電腦)

Replicable(可重複)我們所尋求的歷程.只要是科學的研究歷程一定可以重複…此處重複的意思是”在做一次可以得到相同的答案”

### Methods of problem Solving：Unscientific不科學的方法p13

• Tenacity (固執)

• Intuition (直覺或過去的經驗)

• Authority(權威)

• Rationalistic methods用理性的方法去推理

• Empirical methods我看到就是真的.

### Methods of problem Solving：Scientific(論文的步驟.解決問題的步驟) p17

1. Developing the problem

(define and delimit)

• 發展出個問題(之後就會去定義問題或限制問題)

• Independent variable

• Dependent variable

知道問題就會決定你的自變項或依變項

### Methods of problem Solving：Scientific

2. Formulating the hypothesis

The anticipated outcome(預期的結果)

### Methods of problem Solving：Scientific

3. Gathering the data

• Internal validity(內在效度)

• External validity(外在效度)

• 內在效度控制越好與真實世界差越多

• 兩者互相消長

• 做研究時自己要去評估

### Methods of problem Solving：Scientific

4. Analyzing and interpreting results

### Types of Research Analysis

• Analytical research

• Descriptive research

• Experimental research

### Types of Research (研究的類型)：Analytical(分析)

• Historical

• Philosophical

• Reviews

• Research Synthesis

### Types of Research：Descriptive描述性

• The Questionnaire問卷

• The Interview訪談

• The Normative Survey調查

• The Case Study研究

• The Job Analysis工作分析

• The Documentary(Content) Analysis內容分析

• Developmental Studies發展性研究

• Correlational Studies相關研究

### Types of Research：Experimental實驗室

Manipulation of treatments

Cause-effect relationships