科學方法的邏輯思維
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科學方法的邏輯思維. 國立臺灣體大學(臺中) 體育學 系暨體育研究所 高明峰. Research Process( 研究過程 )p1. What is your problem? 研究問題 Introduction 序論 How did you study the problem? 如何解答問題 Method 方法 What did you find? 發現什麼 Results 結果 What do these findings mean? 結果的意義 Discussion 討論.

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科學方法的邏輯思維

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3081741

科學方法的邏輯思維

國立臺灣體大學(臺中)

體育學系暨體育研究所

高明峰


Research process p1

Research Process(研究過程)p1

  • What is your problem?研究問題

    Introduction序論

  • How did you study the problem?

  • 如何解答問題

    Method方法

  • What did you find?

  • 發現什麼

    Results結果

  • What do these findings mean?

  • 結果的意義

    Discussion討論


The nature of research p3

The Nature of Research(研究過程的五個特色和原則) p3

Systematic(有系統的)

Logical(邏輯)

Empirical(眼見為真)

Reductive(還原)指我們對一個東西的了解.把一個大現象切割切割成多個小單位.我們去了解每一個小單位.我們只要了解每一個小單位.我們只要把每個小單位湊起來.我們就可以了解整個大現象(ex.只要我們了解電腦的每一個零件.我們就瞭解整個電腦)

Replicable(可重複)我們所尋求的歷程.只要是科學的研究歷程一定可以重複…此處重複的意思是”在做一次可以得到相同的答案”


Methods of problem solving unscientific p13

Methods of problem Solving:Unscientific不科學的方法p13

  • Tenacity (固執)

  • Intuition (直覺或過去的經驗)

  • Authority(權威)

  • Rationalistic methods用理性的方法去推理

  • Empirical methods我看到就是真的.


Methods of problem solving scientific p17

Methods of problem Solving:Scientific(論文的步驟.解決問題的步驟) p17

1. Developing the problem

(define and delimit)

  • 發展出個問題(之後就會去定義問題或限制問題)

  • Independent variable

  • Dependent variable

    知道問題就會決定你的自變項或依變項


Methods of problem solving scientific

Methods of problem Solving:Scientific

2. Formulating the hypothesis

形成假設

The anticipated outcome(預期的結果)


Methods of problem solving scientific1

Methods of problem Solving:Scientific

3. Gathering the data

收集資料

  • Internal validity(內在效度)

  • External validity(外在效度)

  • 內在效度控制越好與真實世界差越多

  • 兩者互相消長

  • 做研究時自己要去評估


Methods of problem solving scientific2

Methods of problem Solving:Scientific

4. Analyzing and interpreting results

分析詮釋結果


Types of research analysis

Types of Research Analysis

  • Analytical research

  • Descriptive research

  • Experimental research


Types of research analytical

Types of Research (研究的類型):Analytical(分析)

  • Historical

  • Philosophical

  • Reviews

  • Research Synthesis


Types of research descriptive

Types of Research:Descriptive描述性

  • The Questionnaire問卷

  • The Interview訪談

  • The Normative Survey調查

  • The Case Study研究

  • The Job Analysis工作分析

  • The Documentary(Content) Analysis內容分析

  • Developmental Studies發展性研究

  • Correlational Studies相關研究


Types of research experimental

Types of Research:Experimental實驗室

Manipulation of treatments

操作研究

Cause-effect relationships

因果關係的研究


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