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EML, IMS Learning Design and IMS Simple Sequencing. Colin Tattersall Educational Technology Expertise Centre Open University of the Netherlands. Overview. A word or two on who I am EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing What are they? How do they relate to each other?

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Eml ims learning design and ims simple sequencing
EML, IMS Learning Design andIMS Simple Sequencing

Colin Tattersall

Educational Technology Expertise Centre

Open University of the Netherlands


Overview
Overview

  • A word or two on who I am

  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing

    • What are they?

    • How do they relate to each other?

    • What are their strengths/weaknesses?

  • Summary

  • Discussion


Colin tattersall
Colin Tattersall

  • British, 11 years in NL;

  • Computer Scientist;

  • Exposure to Computer Based Learning and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in late 80s at CBL Unit, Leeds University;

  • Last few years: product manager at software company producing XML-based authoring/content management systems;

  • Started at OUNL on Nov. 1st 2002:

    • OTEC, Development


Overview1
Overview

  • A word or two on who I am

  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing

    • What are they?

    • How do they relate to each other?

    • What are their strengths/weaknesses?

  • Summary

  • Discussion


Educational modelling language eml
Educational Modelling Language (EML)

  • Developed by OUNL in the late nineties

    • Made generally available December 2000

  • Language for describing Units of Learning

    • All the content and processes in function of learning something

    • A model of the activities, content, tools and workflow for learners and staff to accomplish one or more learning objectives

    • Examples: module, course, curriculum, practical, lesson, …


Educational modelling language
Educational Modelling Language

  • Brought into the standardisation process via IMS in 2001 (www.imsglobal.org)

  • IMS goals:

    • “Defining the technical specifications for interoperability of applications and services in distributed learning”

    • “Supporting the incorporation of the IMS specifications into products and services worldwide”

  • IMS SIG on Instructional Design which led to …


Ims learning design v1 0
IMS Learning Design v1.0

  • Approved February the 10th 2003

  • EML will now no longer maintained or updated

  • EML and IMS Learning Design are very similar, though there are some differences …



But why eml ims ld
But why EML/IMS LD?

  • Pedagogical meta model

    • Offers a level of abstraction enabling different educational models to be described

    • Software which knows about the meta-model can interpret specific models—model an approach to learning (eg problem based learning) and have it executed (‘played’)

  • Moves the focus from Learning Objects to Learning Activities ….


My first steps in the e learning world
My first steps in the e-learning world

  • Downloaded Microsoft’s LRN 3.0 Toolkit

    • IMS Content Packaging

    • IMS Meta-data

  • Downloaded all example content packages

  • Things were looking good ….


Things were looking good but
Things were looking good, but …

  • Some engaging content, but each example seemed to be a slight variation of the previous;

  • Learning felt like (only) consuming content

  • Support often looked like page-turning

  • Is this the style of e-learning that the IMS specifications are about?


From learning objects to learning activities
From Learning Objects to Learning Activities

  • What about situations in which learning happens without learning objects?

  • What about when several learners cooperate to solve a problem?

  • Where are the teachers and staff?

  • Learning Design meta-model:

    • Modelling the performance of individual and group learningactivities designed to attain learning objectives and, in the process, making use of learning objects.


Making ims ld learning experiences
Making IMS-LD ‘learning experiences’

  • Learning processes are modelled in the IMS-LD language

  • These models are ‘played’ in an IMS-LD-aware player;

  • Analogous to marking-up learning materials in HTML and having a browser interpret them


Ims ld concepts
IMS-LD concepts

  • People act in different roles

  • working towards certain objectives

  • by performing learning and/or support activities

  • within an environment, consisting of learning objects and services used in the performance of the activities.

  • Analogy with a play ….


Act 1

Act 2

Act 3

Act 4

Act 5

Role-part 1

Role-part 2

Role-part 4

Role-part 5

Environment

Learning objects

Learning services

Role

Activity

play

Activity-

Description



But what do students and staff see
But what do students and staff see?

  • The diagram helps to identify roles, activities, acts, etc, easing the creation of an XML-based representation of the learning process;

  • Modelling is one thing, experiencing the learning design is another;

  • Today there is no IMS-LD player, but

  • An impression can be gained through the prototype EML player …

  • Warning: you are about to see Dutch content


Reflecting on ims ld concepts
Reflecting on IMS-LD concepts

  • People act in different roles

    • Students and facilitator

  • working towards certain objectives

    • Understanding the role of learning technology standards

  • by performing learning and/or support activities

    • Answering questions, discussing, reading, …

  • within an environment, consisting of learning objects and services used in the performance of the activities.

    • Material on standards, discussion forum, …



Ims simple sequencing
IMS Simple Sequencing Sequencing …

  • Released March 2003

  • Will be part of SCORM 1.3

  • “Simple" because it includes a limited number of widely used sequencing behaviours, not because the specification itself is simple.

  • WARNING: some terminological differences with LD ahead


What Is Sequencing? Sequencing …

  • Predictable, consistent ordering and delivery of learning activities, in an instructionally meaningful manner, regardless of delivery environment

    • Designers/authors specify sequencing behaviors at design/authoring time.

    • Activities are sequenced at time of delivery depending on specified behaviors and the learner’s actions.

    • Sequencing behaviors are external from the content to enable greater degree of granularity and reuse


Problems that the ims sequencing specification is trying to solve
Problems that the IMS Sequencing Specification is Trying to Solve

  • Code for sequencing is embedded with code inside learning resources

  • Sequencing behavior is inconsistent in different delivery systems

  • Models of sequencing are proprietary or idiosyncratic

  • Models of sequencing behaviors and activities are poorly defined


Ss definition activity tree
SS: Definition: Activity Tree to Solve

  • LMS Sequencing behavior is described in terms of traversing the nodes of an activity tree to determine which activity to deliver to the learner




Sequencing rules
Sequencing Rules to Solve

  • Rules have conditions which are based on Tracking Status (e.g. completed, satisfied, etc.)

  • Rules are evaluated at specific times during the various sequencing processes

  • Rules include:

    • Precondition Rules

      • If … then Disable this activity

      • If … then Skip this activity in flow mode

      • If … then Stop Forward Traversal

      • If … then Hide this activity from Choice

    • Exit Action Rule

      • If … then Exit

    • Post Condition Rules

      • If… then Continue

      • If… then Previous

      • If… then Exit All

      • If… then Retry

      • If… then Retry All


Example simple sequencing rules
Example Simple Sequencing Rules … to Solve

  • Satisfied – evaluates to True if the Objective Progress value of Objective Satisfied Status for the objective associated with the activity (indicated by Rule Condition Referenced Objective) is True.

  • Completed – evaluates to True if the Attempt Progress value of Activity Attempt Completion Status for the activity is True


Overview2
Overview to Solve

  • A word or two on who I am

  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing

    • What are they?

    • How do they relate to each other?

    • What are their strengths/weaknesses?

  • Summary

  • Discussion


Ld and ss similarities
LD and SS similarities to Solve

  • Both offer sequencing mechanisms;

  • Both are packaged in the organizations section of an IMS Content Package

  • Both talk about learning activities;

  • Both talk about learning objectives;


It s not
It’s not ….. to Solve

… because SS is single learner and LD is multi-learner and so there are things in LD which can’t be modelled in SS“SS does not address synchronization between multiple parallel learning activities … simple sequencing recognizes only the role of the learner” (SCORM 1.3)

Simple Sequencing

Learning Design


But is it
But is it ….. to Solve

Learning Design

Can everything that can be done in SS also be done in LD?

Simple sequencing


Or is it
Or is it ….. to Solve

Learning Design

Are there things in SS which can’t be done in LD?

Simple sequencing


Ims learning design is a framework
IMS Learning Design is a Framework to Solve

  • An IMS Learning Design can/is likely to:

    • Be packaged in an IMS Content Package

    • Use IMS Meta-data to describe various elements

    • Incorporate IMS QTI assessments

    • Use IMS Reusable Definition of Competency of Learning Objective to describe Learning Objectives

    • Map properties to IMS Learner Information Package elements

  • And may …

    • Include IMS Simple Sequencing …


Ss in ld
SS in LD to Solve

  • Sub-manifests

    • A content package using LD contains a sub-manifest that used SS, etc.

  • In an LD instance document.

    • inside the environments elements,

      • used to sequence learning objects and items contained in the learning objects.

    • within the learning object element

      • used to sequence items that are contained within a learning object.

  • Places requirements on runtime engine


Overview3
Overview to Solve

  • A word or two on who I am

  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing

    • What are they?

    • How do they relate to each other?

    • What are their strengths/weaknesses?

  • Summary

  • Discussion


Ld and ss
LD and SS to Solve


When to use which one
When to use which one? to Solve

  • Multiple users/roles: IMS Learning Design

  • Single user: choice

    • External requirements: SCORM 1.3

    • Which players are available?

    • Which examples/tutorials are available

  • Both likely to have their markets

  • What about using SS in LD?

    • Through sub-manifests? Not Unlikely

    • Within an LD instance? Unlikely


Overview4
Overview to Solve

  • A word or two on who I am

  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing

    • What are they?

    • How do they relate to each other?

    • What are their strengths/weaknesses?

  • Summary

  • Discussion


Summary
Summary to Solve

  • LD is approved: learning and teaching are getting attention;

    • Opportunity to move away from designing for lone-learners reading from screens to focus on the performance of individual and group learning activities designed to attain learning objectives

  • Horses for courses:

    • LD and SS will have their own niches

  • IMS aware of terminology issues


Overview5
Overview to Solve

  • A word or two on who I am

  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing

    • What are they?

    • How do they relate to each other?

    • What are their strengths/weaknesses?

  • Summary

  • Discussion


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