Correlation
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correlation. Are two variables related?. 1. Do they move together or opposite ?. 2. How strongly?. (if they are strongly related, we can predict one from the other). correlation coefficient. NO ASSN. NEGATIVE. POSITIVE. -1.00 0 +1.00.

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Correlation

correlation

Are two variables related?

1. Do they move together or opposite?

2. How strongly?

(if they are strongly related, we can predict one from the other)


Correlation

correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

number

= strength


Correlation

sign (+ or -)

move together or opposite?

positive

correlation

+

negative

correlation

-


Correlation

positive correlation

Variable 1

Variable 2

# of shoes you own

amt of credit card debt

move together, in same direction


Correlation

correlational studies

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

NO ASSN


Correlation

Are shy people happy?

To a group of people, give a questionnaire about their degree of shyness.

To this same group, give a questionnaire about their degree of happiness.

Each person has two scores. Use correlation.

Is there a relationship between shyness & happiness? (Did one cause the other?)


Correlation

correlational studies

Correlation is NOT causation!

B

A

B

A

A

C

B


Correlation

example

Variable 1

Variable 2

ice cream sales

violent crime

Ice cream sales positively correlate with the occurrence of violent crime.

e.g.


Correlation

example

Variable 1

Variable 2

# parties at your house

# of friends linked at Facebook

# parties at your house positively correlate with # of friends linked at Facebook

e.g.


Correlation

correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

= strength

number

weak (0 - .40)

moderate (.41 - .69)

strong (.70 – 1.00)


Correlation

correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

= strength

number


Correlation

correlation coefficient

NO ASSN

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

-1.00 0 +1.00

= direction

+ / -

= strength

number


Correlation

real examples

Variable 1

Variable 2

+.90

height of twin #1

height of twin #2

+.50

marriage problems

behavioral problems in children

+.45

height of sister #1

height of sister #2

+.20

exposure to violent media

real-life violent behavior

-.40

amt of social support

frequency of illness


Correlation

experimental research

Hypothesis:

Systematic desensitization therapy eliminates phobias.

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

INDEPENDENT

VARIABLE


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