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CHAPTER 8: PHOTOSYNTHESIS. 8-1 Energy of Life Energy = Living organisms depend on energy. Living things get energy from _______. The ultimate source of energy is the _____. The ability to do work. food. sun. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs =

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CHAPTER 8: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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Chapter 8 photosynthesis l.jpg

CHAPTER 8: PHOTOSYNTHESIS


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  • 8-1 Energy of Life

  • Energy=

  • Living organisms depend on energy.

  • Living things get energy from _______.

  • The ultimate source of energy is the _____.

The ability to do work

food

sun


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  • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

    • Autotrophs=

      • Example: plants use sunlight to make food

    • Heterotrophs=

      • Example: ___________- eat plants

  • ___________- eat animals that

  • have stored energy from

  • plants they eat

  • ___________- eat decomposing

  • organisms

  • Organisms that make their own food

    Organisms that need to consume

    food for energy

    herbivores

    carnivores

    detritovores


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    ATP

    • B. Chemical Energy and ATP

      • Forms of energy: light, heat, electricity, and

      • _____ (Adenosine Triphosphate)=

    Section 8-1

    Chemical energy (stored in bonds)

    ATP

    The basic energy source (chemical energy) of all cells

    Adenine

    Ribose

    3 Phosphate groups


    Slide5 l.jpg

    • Storing Energy

      • ADP (Adenosine Diphospate) contains ____ phosphates instead of 3.

      • If a cell has extra energy,

        2. Releasing Energy

      • To release energy stored in ATP,

    2

    Small amounts can be stored by adding a

    phosphate group to ADP molecules to produce ATP.

    The cell can break the high energy bond between

    the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group


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    Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

    Section 8-1

    ADP

    ATP

    Energy

    Energy

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    Partially

    charged

    battery

    Fully

    charged

    battery


    Slide7 l.jpg

    • Using Biochemical Energy

      • How ATP is used in the cell

      • -

      • - aids in

      • -

      • -

      • Cells contain a small amount of ATP.

        Only enough to provide a few seconds of activity.

      • ATP is great at ________________ but not good at

      • Glucose stores ___ times more energy than ATP.

      • The energy stored in Glucose can be used to

    Carry out active transport

    moving organelles throughout the cell

    Protein synthesis

    Producing light (ex. fireflys)

    transferring energy

    Storing large amounts of energy

    90

    regenerate ATP when the cell needs it.


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    • 8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview

    • Photosynthesis=

    • Plants convert ______________ into ______________

      through a series of oxidation/reduction reactions.

    Process where plants use energy of sunlight

    to convert water and carbon dioxide into

    high-energy Carbohydrates-sugars-starches-

    and oxygen, a waste product.

    Sunlight energy

    Chemical energy

    6 CO2 + 6H2O + SUNLIGHT→ C6H12O6(SUGAR) + 6O2


    Slide9 l.jpg

    sunlight

    O2

    C6H12O6

    CO2

    H2O

    6 CO2 + 6H2O + SUNLIGHT → C6H12O6 (SUGAR) + 6O2


    Redox reactions l.jpg

    REDOX REACTIONS

    LEO: Lose Electrons Oxidation

    goes

    GER: Gain Electrons Reduction

    Reduction:

    Gain electrons

    Oxidation: Lose electrons


    Slide11 l.jpg

    Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products

    Section 8-2

    Light Energy

    Chloroplast

    (Chlorophyll)

    Sugars + O2

    CO2 + H2O


    Slide12 l.jpg

    • A. Investigating Photosynthesis

      • Investigations into photosynthesis began with the

        following question:

        “When a tiny seedling grows into

  • a tall tree with a mass of several tons,

  • where does the tree’s increase in mass come from?”


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    Van Helmont’s

    • ______________ Experiment (1643)

    • Put soil in pot and took mass

    • Took a seedling and took mass

    • Put seed in soil...watered...waited five years...

      the seedling became a tree.

    • He concluded that

    • He determined the

    the mass came from water

    “hydrate” in the carbohydrate

    portion of photosynthesis


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    Von Helmont Willow Tree Experimenthttp://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.stru.photosynth/

    5 years

    2.3 kg. (5 lb.) plant

    90.8 kg (200 lbs). soil

    76.8 kg (169 lbs. 3 oz.) 

    Soil 57 g less


    Slide15 l.jpg

    • ___________ Experiment (1771)

    • Put a lit candle in a bell jar-

    • Placed a mint plant in the jar with the candle-

    • Concluded

    • He determined

    Priestly’s

    The flame died out.

    Flame lasted longer

    plants release a substance needed

    for candle burning.

    plants release oxygen


    Alternate priestly experiment l.jpg

    Alternate Priestly Experiment

    • Credit: The National Science Teachers Association


    Slide17 l.jpg

    Jan Ingenhousz

    • ________________Experiment (1779)

    • Put aquatic plants in light...

    • Put aquatic plants in dark...

    • He determined:

    • _______________ (1948)

    • He determines

    • Known as the

    produced oxygen

    No oxygen

    Light is needed to produce oxygen

    Melvin Calvin

    carbon’s path to make glucose

    Calvin’s cycle


    Slide19 l.jpg

    • B. Light and Pigments

      • Photosynthesis requires ______ (soil), ____________ (air),

        and ____ (sun), and ________ (a molecule in chloroplasts).

      • Energy from the sun is in the form of _____.

      • Sunlight= perceived as white light=

      • The wavelengths you can see are part of the

        _______________.

      • Plants capture light with light absorbing molecules called

        ________.

      • The main pigment is chlorophyll (2 kinds)

    water

    Carbon dioxide

    light

    chlorophyll

    light

    A mixture of different

    wavelengths

    Visible Spectrum

    pigments

    Chlorophyll a

    Chlorophyll b


    Slide20 l.jpg

    Gammarays

    Micro-waves

    Radio

    waves

    X-rays

    UV

    Infrared

    Visible light

    Wavelength (nm)

    • Chlorophyll absorbs light in the __________ and

      ___ wavelengths

    Blue-violet

    Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption

    red

    Section 8-2

    Absorption of Light by

    Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

    RED

    ORANGE

    YELLOW

    GREEN

    BLUE

    INDIGO

    VIOLET

    Chlorophyll b

    Chlorophyll a

    V

    B

    G

    Y

    O

    R


    Slide21 l.jpg

    green

    • Chlorophyll reflects ______ wavelengths (that’s why

      plants appear green)

    • The energy absorbed by chlorophyll is transferred to

      _________ (in chloroplasts) which makes

      photosynthesis work.

    electrons

    QUESTION: So why do plants leaves change color in the fall?

    Colorful leaves signal the changes of autumn. As nights grow longer and cooler, the leaves no longer produce chlorophyll, the pigment that makes leaves green and enables the process of photosynthesis. As the green pigment wanes, other pigments take over, producing the brilliant reds, oranges, and yellows of fall foliage.


    Slide22 l.jpg

    Chloroplast

    LEAF CROSS SECTION

    MESOPHYLL CELL

    • The location and structure of chloroplasts

    LEAF

    Mesophyll

    Intermembrane space

    CHLOROPLAST

    Outer

    membrane

    Granum

    Innermembrane

    Grana

    Stroma

    Thylakoidcompartment

    Stroma

    Thylakoid

    Figure 7.2


    Slide23 l.jpg

    • 8-3The Reactions of Photosynthesis

    • A. Inside a Chloroplast

      • Site of Photosynthesis=

    The chloroplasts

    Reflectedlight

    Light

    Chloroplast

    Absorbedlight

    Transmittedlight


    Slide24 l.jpg

    Light

    CO2

    Sugars

    O2

    • Photosynthesis is a two part process:

    • -aka:

      • 2.

        • -aka:

        • -aka:

        • -aka:

    Light-dependent reactions (located in thylakoid membranes)

    Light Reaction

    Light-independent reactions (located in stroma)

    Dark reaction

    Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

    Calvin Cycle

    Section 8-3

    Carbon fixation

    H20

    Chloroplast

    Chloroplast

    NADP+

    ADP + P

    Light-

    Dependent

    Reactions

    Calvin

    Cycle

    ATP

    NADPH


    Slide25 l.jpg

    H2O

    CO2

    Chloroplast

    • An overview of photosynthesis

    Light

    NADP+

    ADP+

    P

    LIGHTREACTIONS(in grana)

    CALVINCYCLE(in stroma)

    ATP

    Electrons

    NADPH

    O2

    Sugar

    Figure 7.5


    Slide26 l.jpg

    • B. Electron Carriers

      • Sunlight energy is transferred to

      • The electrons

      • High energy electrons require

      • ANALOGY: If you wanted to transfer hot coals from one campfire to another, it requires a special carrier like a pan or bucket.

      • Electron carriers pass electrons from carrier to carrier

        to carrier;

      • A Key electron carrier in photosynthesis is NADP+.

      • NADP+ + + →→

      • (electron carrier) (high energy electrons) (hydrogen ions) (energy storing compound)

      • When energy is needed to do cellular work, the

    electrons in chlorophyll.

    gain a lot of energy.

    a special carrier

    (molecule/compound).

    Forming an electron transport chain.

    2e-

    NADPH

    H+

    Covalent bonds of NADPH are broken to release

    the high energy electrons.


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    Light-Dependent Reactions (Requires Light)·   Located in the ___________________________·   In the light reaction, ___________ is used to produce _____ and _______http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf

    thylakoid membrane

    light energy

    ATP

    NADPH


    Slide28 l.jpg

    Overview of the Light Reaction

    e~

    e~

    Electron Transport Chain

    Electron Transport Chain

    e~

    e~

    ADP ATP

    e~

    e~

    NADP+ NADPH

    light

    light

    PSII

    PSI

    2H2O

    O2 + 4H+

    4e~

    http://www2.kumc.edu/netlearning/examples/flash/photosyn2.html


    Slide29 l.jpg

    Primaryelectron acceptor

    Electron transport

    Primaryelectron acceptor

    Electron transport chain

    Photons

    Energy forsynthesis of

    PHOTOSYSTEM I

    PHOTOSYSTEM II

    by chemiosmosis

    http://www2.kumc.edu/netlearning/examples/flash/photosyn2.html


    Slide30 l.jpg

    • KEY PLAYERS IN LIGHT REACTION:

    • ·Photosystem I and II:

    • ·Electron carriers:

    • ·Water:

      • ATP Synthase:

    Clusters of chlorophyll pigment

    ADP and NADP+

    Donates electrons

    Enzyme (protein) that makes ATP


    Slide31 l.jpg

    Primaryelectron acceptor

    PHOTOSYSTEM

    Photon

    Reaction center

    Pigmentmoleculesof antenna

    Figure 7.7C


    Slide32 l.jpg

    Light Reaction Process:

    Hydrogen

    Ion Movement

    Chloroplast

    Photosystem II

    ATP synthase

    Inner

    Thylakoid

    Space

    Thylakoid

    Membrane

    Stroma

    Electron

    Transport Chain

    Photosystem I

    ATP Formation


    Slide33 l.jpg

    • The production of ATP by chemiosmosis in photosynthesis

    Thylakoidcompartment(high H+)

    Light

    Light

    Thylakoidmembrane

    Antennamolecules

    Stroma(low H+)

    ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

    PHOTOSYSTEM II

    PHOTOSYSTEM I

    ATP SYNTHASE

    Figure 7.9


    Slide34 l.jpg

    A. Photosystem II (PSII) * Absorbs light to 2H2O o  e- = o  O2 = o  H+= B. Electron Transport Chain* The light energy * The electrons get passed

    split (break up) water molecules

    → 4H+ + 4e- + O2

    Donated to chlorophyll

    Released into air providing oxygen for us

    Released inside the thylakoid membrane

    excites electrons increasing

    their energy level.

    down an electron transport chain to

    photosystem I (PSI)


    Slide35 l.jpg

    C. Photosystem I·        Light energy energizes electrons.·        NADP+ accepts the electrons and an H+ and are used to make _________.D. Hydrogen Ion Movement·        When water splits, ·        The difference in charges http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120068/bio05.swf::Proton%20PumpE. ATP Formation·        _____ do not cross the membrane directly. It needs the help of a membrane protein.·        H+ ions pass through the protein:

    NADPH

    H+ ions fill up the inner thylakoid membrane

    (making it positively charged). As a result, the

    stroma is negatively charged.

    Provides the energy to make ATP.

    Ions

    ATP synthase is an enzyme that converts ADP to ATP


    Slide36 l.jpg

    PRODUCTS OF THE LIGHT REACTION:·____ : Released in the air·  ______________: These contain abundant chemical energy but they are unstable. So, they are used to power the dark reaction to _________________ which can store the energy for longer periods of time.

    O2

    ATP & NADPH

    help build glucose


    Slide37 l.jpg

    Section 8-3 D. The Calvin Cycle (dark reaction; light independent) * Occurs in the

    http://faculty.nl.edu/jste/calvin_cycle.htm

    Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle

    Stroma with or without light.

    CO2 Enters the Cycle

    Energy Input

    ChloropIast

    5-Carbon

    Molecules

    Regenerated

    6-Carbon Sugar

    Produced

    Sugars and other compounds


    Section 9 2 summary pages 225 230 l.jpg

    (CO2)

    The Calvin Cycle

    Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230

    (CO2)

    (Unstable intermediate)

    (RuPB)

    ADP +

    ATP

    ATP

    ADP +

    NADPH

    NADP+

    (PGAL)

    (PGAL)

    (PGAL)

    (Sugars and other carbohydrates)


    Slide39 l.jpg

    • DARK REACTION PROCESS:

    • A. CO2 enters the system

      •  product=

    • B. Energy input

      • The _________________________________ are used to

    • C. 6-Carbon Sugar is produced

      • ___ of the 12 3-C are used to make glucose and

    • other compounds.

    • D. 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated

      • ___ remaining 3-C are converted into 6 5-C molecules

    6 CO2 combines with 6 5-C compounds

    12 3-C compounds

    ATP & NADPH (from the light reaction)

    convert the 12 3-C compounds into a higher energy form.

    2

    10


    Slide40 l.jpg

    PRODUCTS OF THE CALVIN CYCLE (DARK REACTION):*E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis**   Plants often have a ______ coating to protect against ** The greater the _____________, the better photosynthesis functions (up to a point).

    High Energy Sugars

    Shortage of water can stop/slow down photosynthesis

    waxy

    Very low/high temperatures (damages enzymes) can

    stop/slow down photosynthesis (optimal temp.= 0°– 35° C

    Light intensity


    Slide41 l.jpg

    Light-

    dependent

    reactions

    Calvin cycle

    Energy from

    sunlight

    Thylakoid

    membranes

    ATP

    Stroma

    NADPH

    High-energy

    sugars

    ATP

    NADPH

    O2

    Chloroplasts

    Concept Map

    Section 8-3

    Photosynthesis

    includes

    takes place in

    uses

    use

    take place in

    to produce

    to produce

    of


    California state standards l.jpg

    California State Standards

    • Cell Biology

      1a: usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide


    Warm up 8 1 l.jpg

    Warm up 8-1

    • Draw an ATP molecule and describe why it is considered an energy molecule.

    • Why do animals have to eat to gain energy and plants do not?

    • Why do organisms need energy?


    Warm up 8 2 l.jpg

    Warm-up 8-2

    • Describe what the data represents in figure 8-5 pg 207.

    • Why are plants green?

    • What do plants need to grow? Where are they obtaining these substances?


    Warm up 8 3 l.jpg

    Warm-up 8-3

    • Diagram the process of photosynthesis in detail.


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    United Streaming video:

    Photosynthesis (13 min)

    http://www.unitedstreaming.com/search/assetDetail.cfm?guidAssetID=083C802D-4438-4FEA-A20C-79909E7CB830


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